Amphetamine (alphamethylfentanyl) is a synthesized chemical compound stimuli the Central nervous system. Amphetamine is a pharmacological analogue of adrenaline and noradrenaline hormones. Once in the body, it does not produce energy as food, and puts into practice the energy that is already in the body. The chemical formula of (C9H13N).
Methamphetamine (methenamin, screw, methamphetamine, methamphetamine hydrochloride, amfetamin, gerovit, desain, methedrine, netrin, premarin, sandrocks, tonedron etc. - only about 30) - a drug with strong stimulant effect. Pharmacologically similar to amphetamine (phenamine), but more active and toxic. The methamphetamine molecule consists of an amphetamine molecule and a methyl group attached to nitrogen (c10h15n formula).
It was found that the effects, duration and force of the drug influence change slightly when adding methyl group to the molecule of psychotropic substance. In particular, methamphetamine has a slightly higher solubility (compared to amphetamine) due to the presence of the methyl group, so it penetrates the brain more quickly.
Amphetamine has many synonyms languages (Aktedrin, Alentol, Amphamine, Amphedrine,Amphethamini sulfas, Amphetamine sulfate, Benzedrine sulfate, Benzpropamin, Euphodyn, Isoamin, Ortedrine, Psychedrinum, Psychoton, Racephen, Raphetamin, Sympamin,Sympatedrine, Protein, Bibah, Gunpowder, AIDS, Speed, Hairdryer, Frex, Smaga, amphetamine)
Amphetamine is sold in two forms: as tablets or as a crystalline powder. Dosage from 5 to 100 mg depending on the expected effect.
After taking amphetamines in half an hour-an hour there comes an active state. The mechanism of stimulating action of amphetamines is mainly associated with an increase in the release of catecholamines (noradrenaline and dopamine). The rise of mood is combined with a pronounced increase in mental and physical activity, a surge of energy, self-confidence, strength and capabilities. Improving mental and physical performance is confirmed by objective data. Eliminates the need for rest and sleep. At high doses, active waking lasts 2-3 days, at low-4-8 hours. In the action of drugs, there are differences. Amphetamines, unlike methamphetamine, in ten percent of people causes a paradoxical reaction in the form of drowsiness, lethargy, decreased performance.
Amphetamine often ends suddenly. The rise in 6-8 hours abruptly gives way to exhaustion, fatigue, irritability. Action methamphetamine passes slowly and almost imperceptibly: after short 2- 's, 3-' s hour vacation performance and well-being remain high.
When taking amphetamine, there may be negative effects such as headache, tachycardia, increased blood pressure and temperature, convulsions and convulsions.
At the end of the drug positive reactions are replaced by apathy and General depression. This is because amphetamines use "reserves" of the body, which later require restoration.
External signs of amphetamine use
In narcotic doses are expressed in increased pulse and respiration, dilatation of pupils, chills and increased sweating. So typical of insecure movement and impaired coordination.
Symptoms of overdose are high pressure and temperature, fever, heart failure and gastrointestinal tract (nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps).
At the behavioral level, the effects can vary greatly depending on the characteristics of the organism.
Positive effects : - increased activity-reduced need for sleep - a sense of euphoria - increased sexuality
Neutral effects: - excessive talkativeness - weight loss - increased sweating - visual and auditory hallucinations
Negative effects are - violation of the sleep - spasm of the masticatory muscles (lockjaw), grinding teeth loss of appetite (anorexia) - reduced libido (at the time) - itchy skin, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea - excessive arousal - shortness of breath - irritability - aggressive behavior - the panic, the paranoia, uncontrollable movements (twitching of fingers, facial muscles) - strong depression unreasonable panic, increased aggression, hallucinations.
Antidotes for poisoning by amphetamine - diazepam, galoperedola, fluanxol.
Effects of amphetamine use
A high dose of amphetamine can cause seizures, unusual movements or a mentally unstable condition. After the expiration of amphetamine in these reactions behavior almost always follows severe depression and fatigue that individually for each. Omitting any details, for any stimulator of the nervous system, characterized by the effect of fatigue accumulation. At the termination of reception, as a rule, the needs for food and rest brought down by amphetamine can be shown. This can be explained by the fact that any stimulant activates the accumulated "reserves" of the body and after the termination of the effect the body needs to restore them. Frequent use of amphetamine can lead to severe exhaustion, both mentally and physiologically, in the form of weakness, or significant weight loss. Among other things, at the expense of amphetamine can disrupt the functioning of the renal system, liver, and can be reduced immune response. Frequent consumption may refuse heart. Amphetamine greatly increases the consumption of calcium, which can lead to the destruction of teeth and bone tissue. The most frequent consequence of amphetamine use is thrombophlebitis, venous thrombosis.
From the history of amphetamine and methamphetamine:
For the first time the action of the stimulant phenylalkylamine group - ephedrine - was described by the Chinese about 5,000 years ago. Amphetamine can be considered as a synthetic analogue of ephedrine.
Amphetamine was synthesized in 1887 by Romanian chemist L. Edeleanu. And in 1919 by Japanese researcher, A. Ogata synthesized methamphetamine.
Since 1932, amphetamine began to be sold in pharmacies as a means of suppressing appetite. It was distributed in the form of an inhaler, and had the trade name Benzedrine (Benzedrine).
In the 30s, the pharmacists of Temmler Werke in Berlin developed a stimulating agent pervitin (pervitin). Since 1938, the substance used systematically and in large doses, as in the army and in the defense industry (tablets of pervitin officially entered the "combat diet" pilots and tank crews).
Mass use of amphetamine and methamphetamine began during the Second world war. Amphetamine was given to American and Soviet pilots, seamen, tankers, scouts, as a means to relieve fatigue, to combat sleep during service, to increase vigilance.
In the 1960s and 1970s, amphetamines-including those produced illegally-were widely distributed in the United States as narcotic drugs. Since the 1980s, Smoking of methamphetamine, which is called meth on slang, has become popular. In 80-90-ies amphetamine addiction began to spread in the North-West region of Russia, Baltic countries, Kazakhstan. Pure drugs are used less often. They're not very accessible. More well-known surrogate of meth called"Vint" derived from ephedrine and representing a mixture of substances containing methamphetamine.
In 1985, the illegal drug market in Hawaii for the first time saw the emergence of a new form of methamphetamine for Smoking, which was a crystalline methamphetamine, similar in appearance to pieces of crystalline salt and therefore received the "street" name "ice". Very quickly, "ice" spread to the rest of the world, but until 1987, this fact was not widely covered, but was considered only as a local phenomenon. "Ice" is a pure 98-100% d-enantiomer of methamphetamine hydrochloride.
The popularity of methamphetamine due to its relative cheapness and ease of manufacture. In effect, it is similar to cocaine, but the duration is much superior to the latter: methamphetamine acts for 12 hours or more. In America, it is also called"cocaine for the poor."
Amphetamines are still common in psychotherapeutic practice and retain their "military" value-included in the first aid kits of special forces of the US army. Are made by ten firms of the world. Amphetamines are classified as drugs by the world Health organization.