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What is Amphetamine

amphetamine

Amphetamine (alphamethylphenylethylamine) is a synthesized chemical compound that stimulates the Central nervous system, a derivative of phenylethylamine. Amphetamine is a pharmacological analog of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. Once in the body, it does not produce energy like food, but uses energy that is already in the body. The chemical formula of (C9H13N).

Amphetamine exists as a pair of enantiomers: right-handed (S-(+)-amphetamine, dextroamphetamine) and left-handed (R-( - ) - amphetamine, levamphetamine). The biological activity of isomers differs: the right-hand isomer acts on the Central nervous system 3-4 times stronger than the left-hand one. The effect on the sympathetic nervous system, on the contrary, is higher in the left-hand-turning isomer.

Amphetamine has many synonyms in both Russian and English (Aktedrin, Alentol, Amphamine, Amphedrine,Amphethamini sulfas, Amphetamine sulfate, Benzedrine sulfate, Benzpropamine, Euphodyn, Isoamine, Ortedrine, Psychedrinum, Psychoton, Racephen, Raphetamine, Sympamine,Sympatedrine, protein, biboh, gunpowder, speed, speed, hair dryer, frex, shmaga, Phenamine).

One of the main uses of amphetamine in medicine (in countries where such use is allowed) is the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (along with methylphenidate).

Amphetamine is sold in two forms: as tablets or as a crystalline powder. Dosage from 5 to 100 mg depending on the expected effect. Amphetamine, which is sold illegally in retail, is usually of low quality, which has fallen markedly in the first decade of the twenty-first century. Consumed orally, intranasally, intravenously.

After taking amphetamines, an active state occurs in half an hour or an hour. The mechanism of stimulating action of amphetamines is mainly associated with an increase in the release of catecholamines (norepinephrine and dopamine). When amphetamine enters the cell, transporters begin to move dopamine from the vesicle to the cytoplasm and then to the synaptic cleft. As a result, the concentration of dopamine in the synaptic cleft increases, although the usual (vesicular) mechanism of neurotransmitter release decreases. The mechanism of norepinephrine release under the action of amphetamine is similar to the above. Amphetamine also affects serotonin release, but is an order of magnitude weaker than MDMA.

The Central stimulating effect of amphetamine is expressed in improving mood, increasing attention and concentration, as well as in the appearance of a sense of confidence and comfort. Amphetamine increases motor and speech activity, reduces sleepiness and appetite, and increases performance. The negative side of the Central effects of amphetamine can be expressed in the appearance of feelings of anxiety, insomnia and tremors. Amphetamine can also cause panic and stimulant psychosis.
The peripheral effect of amphetamine is similar to that of cocaine and is mainly associated with the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. The effect on the cardiovascular system is manifested in tachycardia and high blood pressure. In addition, amphetamine can in some cases cause mydriasis, diaphoresis, more often — hyperthermia, chills and dry mouth.

At the end of the drug, positive reactions are replaced by apathy and General depression. This is due to the fact that amphetamines use the" reserves " of the body, which later require recovery.

External signs of amphetamine use
in narcotic doses, they are expressed in increased pulse and breathing, dilated pupils, chills and increased sweating. It is also characterized by uncertain movements and impaired coordination.
Symptoms of overdose are high blood pressure and temperature, fever, heart and gastrointestinal disorders (nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps).
At the behavioral level, the effects may differ greatly depending on the characteristics of the body.
Positive effects: - increased activity - reduced need for sleep - a sense of euphoria - increased sexuality
Neutral effects: - excessive talkativeness - weight loss-increased sweating - visual and auditory hallucinations
Negative effects - sleep disorders-convulsions of the chewing muscles (trizm), teeth grinding - loss of appetite (anorexia) - decreased sexual desire (for a time) - itching of the skin - nausea, vomiting, diarrhea - excessive excitement-rapid breathing-irritability-aggressive behavior-panic, paranoia - uncontrolled movements (convulsions of the fingers, facial muscles) - severe depression - gratuitous panic, increased aggression, hallucinations.
Antidotes for amphetamine poisoning - diazepam, haloperidol, fluanxol.

Effects of amphetamine use
A large dose of amphetamine can cause convulsive seizures, non-typical movements, or a mentally unbalanced state. After the end of the action of amphetamine, these behavioral reactions are almost always followed by severe depression and fatigue, which is strictly individual for everyone. Omitting all details, any stimulator of the nervous system is characterized by the effect of fatigue accumulation. When you stop taking, as a rule, you may show downed amphetamine needs for food and rest. This can be explained by the fact that any stimulator activates the accumulated "reserves" of the body and after the effect is stopped, the body needs to restore them. Frequent use of amphetamine can lead to severe exhaustion, both on a mental level and physiologically, in the form of weakness, or significant weight loss. Among other things, amphetamine can disrupt the functioning of the renal system, liver, and may also reduce the immune response. With frequent consumption, the heart may fail. Amphetamine greatly increases the consumption of calcium, which can lead to the destruction of teeth and bone tissue. The most common consequence of using amphetamines is thrombophlebitis, venous thrombosis.
An overdose of amphetamine is dangerous primarily for the cardiovascular system. Amphetamine-induced tachycardia, high blood pressure, and vascular spasm can lead to ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, myocardial infarction, and aortic dissection. Other life-threatening consequences of overdose may include metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, and coagulopathy.
Like many other drugs, amphetamine can cause psychological dependence, expressed in the desire to take the drug and the manifestation of behavior aimed at finding it. The formation of psychological dependence on amphetamine is associated with the effect on dopaminergic neurons in the ventral region of the tire and Nucleus accumbens, which are responsible for learning and positive reinforcement.
The question of physical dependence on amphetamine is ambiguous. Abrupt withdrawal of the drug after prolonged use (or use for several days in high doses) causes fatigue, drowsiness, hunger and depression to such an extent that there is a real risk of suicide. These symptoms can be considered components of withdrawal syndrome or simply the consequences of a constant lack of sleep and food that accompany regular use of amphetamine

From the history of amphetamine:
For the first time, the action of a stimulant of the phenylalkylamine group - ephedrine-was described by the Chinese about 5000 years ago. Amphetamine can be considered as a synthetic analog of ephedrine.
Amphetamine was synthesized in 1887 by the Romanian chemist L. Idelianu.
Since 1932, amphetamine has been sold in pharmacies as an appetite suppressant. It was distributed in the form of an inhaler, and had the trade name Benzedrine (Benzedrine).
In 1937, amphetamine salts came on sale in the form of tablets, advertised as a treatment for narcolepsy, Parkinson's disease, depression, and as a means to lose weight. Cases of recreational use of amphetamine were described as early as 1936.
Mass use of amphetamine began during world war II. Amphetamine was given to American and Soviet pilots, sailors, tankers, and scouts as a means to relieve fatigue, fight sleep while on duty, and increase alertness.
In the 1960s and 70s, amphetamines – including those produced illegally-were widely distributed in the United States as narcotic drugs. Since the 1980s, Smoking methamphetamine, which is slang for meth, has become popular. In the 80-90s, the craze for amphetamines began to spread in the North-Western region of Russia, the Baltic States, and Kazakhstan. Pure drugs are used less often. They are not very accessible.
In 1970, the US authorities added amphetamine to the list of controlled substances, and in 1971, the United Nations adopted the international Convention on psychotropic substances, the subject of which was also regulated by amphetamine. By the end of the 1970s, amphetamine use in the United States was on the decline, with a simultaneous increase in cocaine use. Amphetamine use in Europe also fell, although it remained relatively popular in Scandinavia, Poland, and the Baltic States.
Amphetamines are still common in psychotherapy practice and have retained their "military" meaning-they are included in the first-aid kits of the us army special forces. Produced by a dozen companies in the world. According to the classification of the world Health Organization, amphetamines are drugs.
By decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 486 of 30 June 2010, amphetamine was included in the list of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors, the circulation of which is prohibited in the Russian Federation List I. Prior to this ruling, amphetamine was part of Schedule II. In this case, the levorotating isomer of amphetamine, levamphetamine, is included in Schedule III.





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