Barbiturates (barbiturates,barbies, downers, blues, seccies, nembies) - a class of sedative drugs that have a hypnotic,anticonvulsant and narcotic effect due to the inhibitory effect on the Central nervous system and are used in medicine to relieve anxiety, insomnia and convulsive reflexes. All these drugs are derivatives of barbituric acid (CONHCOCH2CONH).
Barbiturates are administered orally in powders and tablets, as well as intramuscularly, intravenously (mainly for anesthesia) and through the rectum. The corresponding dosage forms of drugs may occur in the form of capsules, tablets, liquids, candles.
Barbiturates are well absorbed in the stomach and small intestine. The duration of action of different barbiturates varies, due to the peculiarities of their transformation in the body and excretion from it (long-acting barbiturates are excreted mainly kidneys; barbiturates short-acting destroyed mainly in the liver). To obtain a sleeping pill or sedative (1/3-1/4 dose, causing sleep) effect drugs are used with a long (Barbital, phenobarbital, Barbital-sodium), average duration (cyclobarbital, barbamil, etaminal-sodium) and short (hexobarbital) effect, depending on the nature of sleep disorders.
People abusing barbiturates prefer barbiturates of short or medium impact, namely pentobarbital (Nembutal) and secobarbital (Amital). Other barbiturates short-and intermediate-duration exposure are butalbital (fiorinal, fioricet), butabarbital (butisol), talbutal (lotusate) and aprobarbital (alurate). After applying any of these drugs inside the action starts within 15 to 40 minutes, and the effects continue for up to 6 hours.
Barbiturates-sleeping pills, to which the prolonged use of addictive. In medicine the most widely used is the next one - Barbital, barbamyl, phenobarbital (also called luminal a) and etaminal - sodium. Abuse of barbiturates is typical for patients with alcoholism and opium addiction. This may be due to the fact that the tendency to receive barbiturates inherited by the same mechanism as the tendency to consume alcohol and opiates. In addition to its main medicinal effect, barbiturates cause weak euphoria. This feature attracts more and more people abusing drugs, and in the end become for them an end in itself. Not knowing mostly about the dangers of uncontrolled ingestion of the barbiturates, they can get into a physical dependence on them. And this dependence can be expressed in the form of a tenacious abstinence syndrome. With a strong overdose of barbiturates (more than 4-6 g per reception) possible deaths due to paralysis of the respiratory center and the development of coma. It should be borne in mind that when too frequent intake of barbiturates, their doses are summed up, which creates a serious threat to health even when taking relatively low single doses.
The action of barbiturates is opposite to the action of amphetamines: they suppress the Central nervous system. In small doses they act as tranquilizers, and in large they sleeping pills. Sleep with barbiturates-abnormal sleep, because they suppress all kinds of normal activity during sleep.
Consequences of the use of barbiturates:
Barbituratami dynamics similar to the dynamics of other types of substance abuse: long period of their technique leads to irritability, inattention, poor concentration, possible memory impairment. There are also hypomimia, oiled speech, tremor, decreased tendon reflexes and other neurological disorders. In some cases, the patient's condition is close to pseudoparalytic.
As for addiction, it is much stronger opiate. Abstinence is usually very difficult: for the second or third day after discontinuation of insomnia, anxiety, muscle cramps, nausea and vomiting. Abstinent syndrome in some cases can cause epileptic seizures, coma or even death. Continued use of barbiturates leads to a complete psychological shift, because the mind has ways to realize themselves. Barbiturates cause a tendency to suicide. And here, as always with drugs, you need to know what you're doing. The greatest danger of the use of barbiturates is associated with overdose. Without medical supervision, taking these drugs is very dangerous, because during barbiturates sleep is likely to choke with vomiting or just not Wake up.
The possibility of overdose increases significantly if barbiturates are taken intravenously rather than orally. Mostly barbiturates are used only by those people who have the switches set to auto-destruction, because the drug does not cause pleasant sensations. Barbiturates lack the euphoric potential of opiates and the socio-smoothing properties associated with alcohol. They just cause black and empty oblivion and, as such, will always be popular among people who hate themselves and their lives so much that their behavior is driven by the need to destroy the very possibility of thought and self-esteem.
Signs of ingestion of barbiturates:
Pupils normal, but eyes sleepy; difficult speech and stuttering; drowsiness; darkening of consciousness; hallucinations; uncontrolled and uncoordinated movements, imbalance (like a drunken man); delayed mental reactions; difficult thought process and speed of logical decision making; indecision; vague statements; mood depression, poor breathing and pulse.
The history of barbiturates:
Barbituric acid was first synthesized in 1863 by the famous chemist Adolf von Bayer (Baeyer, Adolf von - 1835-1917). As the opening fell on the December 4 - day of SV. Barbara - hence the first part of the title acid. The second part - from the English word "urea" - that is"urine".
Barbiturates entered into medical practice at the beginning of the twentieth century. The increase in the consumption of barbiturates was due to the increasing number of patients complaining of stress. In such conditions, any sedative initially had a commercial success on the market. Barbiturates have been successful in helping to deal with insomnia, so lack of wanting to try them was not. However, with the increasing popularity of the drug, the number of cases of negative effects вЂ“ including cases of drug addiction-increased. These consequences led to a decline in the use of barbiturates in medicine. More than 2,500 barbiturates have been synthesized, and at the peak of their popularity about 50 were sold for consumption. The most widespread drugs amytal, Barbital, phenobarbital, pentobarbital, luminal, Seconal, Nembutal, and tranquilizers Librium, valium and Terezin.