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What is Benzodiazepines

What is Benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepines - a class of psychoactive substances affecting the Central nervous system, and having the effect of its inhibition. Benzodiazepines are depressants with strong hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic (decrease anxiety), muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant effects. Benzodiazepines have a similar chemical structure 2-amino-1, 4-benzodiazepine-4-oxide with various substitutes in the original formula.

To benzodiazepines include the following drugs: Ativan, Valium, Versed, Vertran, Halcion, Diazepam (Sibazon), Xanax, Librium, Paxipam, Restoril, Serax, Trunks, , Nozinan (Oxazepam), Lorazepam, Alprazolam, Nitrazepam, Alprazolam, Flunitrazepam, Triazolam, Midazolam, Chlordiazepoxide, Nozepam, Temazepam, Quazepam and several others.

There are 3 groups of benzodiazepines depending on their half-life period:
Short-acting benzodiazepines have a half-life period of 1-12 hours.
Benzodiazepines average duration of action have a half-life of 12-40 hours.
Long-acting benzodiazepines with a half-life period of 40-250 hours.

Of the drugs that affect the functions of the Central nervous system, benzodiazepines are among the most frequently prescribed drugs and, unfortunately, very often consumed for other purposes.

Effects of benzodiazepine use:

Like barbiturates, benzodiazepines differ in the following parameters: how quickly they lead to effects and how long their effects last.
After ingestion, benzodiazepines accumulate in the brain substance-first in gray, and then in white.
Benzodiazepines, allostericheski interacting with GABA receptors, increase the affinity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to these receptors, thereby increasing the flow of chlorine ions into neurons and increases inhibitory postsynaptic potential, which reduces the excitability of neurons. This fact explains the decrease in anxiety syndrome and other disorders associated with hyperactivity of neurons.

Repeated use of large doses or, in some cases, daily use of therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines leads to physical dependence. The syndrome of breaking is similar to the syndrome of breaking after taking alcohol, but most often it is much more unpleasant and lasts much longer than breaking from drugs, and also requires hospitalization. Sudden cessation of benzodiazepine use is not recommended, while a gradual reduction in the dose eliminates many undesirable symptoms.
Approximately half of the drug addicts undergoing treatment for addiction to other drugs, there is a tendency to use benzodiazepines.
Taking benzodiazepines simultaneously with alcohol can be very dangerous.



Signs of benzodiazepine use:

The main symptoms of benzodiazepine use include drowsiness, dizziness, decreased attention and concentration, nausea and appetite changes, visual impairment, confusion, euphoria, delirium, convulsions, depersonalization and nightmares. There is also a decrease in libido and erectile dysfunction. Can occur depression and disinhibition (disinhibition). Hypotension and respiratory depression may occur when administered intravenously.

In General, a person under the influence of high doses of the drug resembles a drunk, but in the absence of the smell of alcohol.

From the history of benzodiazepines:
1955-Leo Sternbach while working in Hoffmann La Roche on the development of tranquilizers was synthesized first benzodiazepine-chlordiazepoxide. But the pharmacological properties of the initially obtained compounds were disappointing and Sternbach stopped the project.
April 1957-Earl Reader during the General cleaning in the laboratory noticed a "beautiful crystal" compound left after a closed project. And after the successful experiments were introduced into clinical practice worldwide in 1960 under the brand name Librium
In 1959, diazepam was synthesized, which was sold by Hoffmann-La Roche under the brand name "Valium".
In 1961, bell synthesized Oxazepam, a metabolite of diazepam.
In 1976 was created the midazolam, the first water-soluble benzodiazepine that is used in practice.
In the 1980s, problems began to arise gradually, in particular the risk of dependence on benzodiazepines.
In 2010, the documents of the Medical Research Council were declassified, which say that benzodiazepines can cause brain damage in some people, such as those that arise from alcoholism.


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