Caffeine (1,3,7-trimetilxantin) â€” alkaloid purine series, colorless, bitter taste crystals with no odor. Alternative names-tein, matein, guaranin. Slowly soluble in water, easy â€” in hot, hard â€” in alcohol. Solutions have a neutral reaction. Chemical formula (C8H10N4O2).
Contained in plants such as coffee tree, tea, mate, guarana, Cola, and some others. Synthesized by plants to protect against insects eating leaves, stems and grains. Caffeine extracted from the waste of tea, coffee beans. Caffeine is synthesized from uric acid and xanthine in industry.
Due to the stimulating properties of caffeine and physical addiction to it, many people use caffeine-containing products (drinks) for enraging. Caffeine is also actively used in medicine.
Methods of caffeine consumption: orally in the form of caffeine containing beverages, tablets, chewing gum. A solution for subcutaneous and sub-conjunctival administration is also used.
The effects of Caffeine:
In small doses has a stimulating effect on the nervous system. In large doses causes exhaustion and dependence â€” caffeinism, in doses of 150-200 mg per kilogram of body weight (80-100 cups of coffee for a limited period of time) â€” death. Caffeine is addiction, but addiction is completely incomparable to the tragic consequences of drug or alcohol addiction. Heave and it has consequences.
Side effects of caffeine are:
- From the nervous system: arousal, anxiety, tremor, anxiety, headache, dizziness, epileptic seizures, increased reflexes, tachypnea, insomnia; with sudden cancellation - increased inhibition of the Central nervous system, increased fatigue, drowsiness, muscle tension.
- From CCC: heartbeat, tachycardia, arrhythmia, increased blood PRESSURE.
- From the digestive system: nausea, vomiting, exacerbation of peptic ulcer disease.
- Other: nasal congestion, with prolonged use-addiction, drug dependence.
Overdose symptoms: gastralgia, agitation, anxiety, excitement, motor anxiety, confusion, delirium, dehydration, tachycardia, arrhythmia, hyperthermia, accelerated urination, headache, increased tactile or pain sensitivity, tremor or muscle twitching; nausea and vomiting, sometimes with blood; ringing in the ears, epileptic seizures (acute overdose - tonic).
In 1827 udri was isolated from tea leaves, a new alkaloid and named it dark.
In 1828 Caffeine in its pure form was first obtained (Pelletier and Caventou).
In 1832 the number was set by Wohler and Liebig by Pfaff.
In 1838, Jobst and G. J. Mulder proved the identity of Thein and caffeine.