Cocaine (methyl ester benzoate) is a psychotropic stimulant, a methyl ester of benzoylecgonine, a tropane alkaloid obtained by extraction from the leaves of the plant Eryhoxylum coca or simply from Coca leaves. Possesses local anesthetic and narcotic action. The chemical formula of the drug (C17H21NO4).
Cocaine has several synonyms in different languages (Djankov, make-Up, Honey, White horse, Charlie, Cupcake, Glass, Nicholas, nick, Inflated, Flour, Fresh, Raw, Accelerator, Energy, coke, Coconut, Coca, Snow, First, ORT, Kors, si, TSE, Walnut, Soap, Coke, Girl, Lady, Snow).
Cocaine is a white crystalline powder with no odor. Looks like snow. Bitter taste, causes numbness of tongue and gums in the sample of the "on language". From Coca leaves, which are treated with kerosene and rubbed, obtained paste. When you add in this paste of hydrochloric acid, the obtained salt is cocaine hydrochloride (cocaine HCL) . This salt is sold as a finished product of cocaine.
Also used a cheaper version of cocaine-crack. The crack got its name because of the characteristic clicking sound accompanying it Smoking, this sound arises at thermal destruction of crystals of the free base of cocaine. The melting point of crack is 98 Â°C, so it evaporates easily when Smoking without loss of narcotic effect.
The greatest danger is Speedball-a mixture of crack and heroin. Its health hazard is due to the cross-coupling between the opioid heroin drug and the cocaine psychostimulant. Such a combination can cause serious complications in the functioning of the cardiovascular system, in the future-cross â€” physical dependence with a very severe withdrawal syndrome.
Like any other psychostimulant, cocaine causes euphoria, the feeling of joy of existence, the novelty and conviviality of the surrounding world. A person becomes more sociable and talkative. While the body seems light, the ability to act, act is not limited. Man embracing a feeling of cheerfulness, the limitlessness of his physical capabilities, lose the desire to sleep. It seems that his mental capacity is not limited. He believes that he perceives any information much easier than usual. The ability to memorize seems to him not limited. In fact, most of these effects are apparent. In fact, under the influence of cocaine, the coordination and accuracy of movements are drastically reduced. The effect is felt from 10 to 40 minutes depending on the method of use, then there is depression, which lasts about 30-40 minutes and is accompanied by delusional disorders and hallucinations. All around inspires extraordinary suspicion, at first with an admixture of some curiosity, but soon with anger and aggression. The faces of other people appear distorted from evil intent. Among hallucinations tactile characteristic: insects and worms ("cocaine bugs") are not only felt crawling on the skin, but there is a belief that they have penetrated the skin. Consumers try to get them out of there, making the skin is covered with a variety of deep combs and scratches. Auditory and visual hallucinations do not always appear and are occasional. Along with the delusions of persecution sometimes develops delusions of jealousy or delusions of grandeur. During the paranoid, the external order of behavior remains. On others they may not impress delusional patients. On the contrary, even able to induce the others, who initially share their fears, believe in their stories.
According to the nature of the impact on different systems of the body cocaine is an effective stimulant, and even a one-time, and even more chronic use causes various, often serious violations in the body. Cocaine acts directly on the brain, especially on the limbic system, which contains the centers responsible for the state of instinctive pleasure. Cocaine produces an effect of euphoria, blocking the reabsorption of dopamine, and repeated cocaine use can exhaust the supply of dopamine, causing a "breakdown" felt towards the end of the drug. It also explains the development of physical addiction and tolerance to cocaine.
Especially disastrous is the influence of cocaine on the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system and the Central nervous system, manifested in behavioral abnormalities, severe depression, paranoid disorders, psychoses (for which the term "cocaine" psychosis is introduced), hallucinations, brain strokes and bleeding. There may be problems with the nasal mucosa - frequent nasal bleeding and chronic runny nose, persistent depression, insomnia, impotence and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Cocaine use during pregnancy can cause miscarriage or stillbirth.
Signs of cocaine use:
Pale skin, rapid pulse, dilated pupils, chills, sweating, bowel disorders, increased respiratory rate, fever, suppression of gag reflex, strong excitability, sudden mood changes from lively to joyful to aggressive, impaired coordination of movements, inconsistency in actions and thoughts. With an overdose, convulsions are possible.
As the drug continues to be used, there are other signs-weight loss, untidy appearance, redness of the skin due to combing the apparent bites of the so-called "cocaine bugs", chronic runny nose, frequent respiratory infections. Being under the influence of cocaine, a person can stay awake for several hours and then sleep for a long period of time. Psychological signs of addiction can include loss of interest in socializing, former Hobbies or any other active activity, problems at home, at school and at work, financial problems.
From the history of cocaine:
Even in the ancient Inca civilization, the priests used Coca leaves to enter the trance during religious activities, and later among the inhabitants of mountainous areas it was common to chew Coca leaves to improve health, relieve fatigue and reduce hunger.
Under laboratory conditions, cocaine was first synthesized in 1859 in Germany. During the XIX - early XX century cocaine was considered a "miracle cure". Many doctors believed that with the help of this drug, you can treat various diseases, ranging from bronchial asthma and ending with disorders of the digestive system. In some cases, cocaine was prescribed for the treatment of alcoholism.
One of the well - known apologists cocaine was the Creator of the school of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud (1856 1939). He not only promoted cocaine as a cure for depression and impotence, but he also took it on many occasions. However, during several years of steady distribution of cocaine facts of its negative influence on health of people collected and its destructive action became more and more obvious: the psychoses caused by cocaine, deaths from overdoses and development of strong drug dependence.
In 1912, more than 5,000 reported cocaine-related deaths occurred in the United States alone, and in 1922 the government banned the drug for mass use.
In 1963, Coca and cocaine were listed as banned substances by a UN decision. Nevertheless, the use of the drug in its various modifications only grew. In the 1970s, the press started talking about the" cocaine epidemic " in South America.
In October 1982, President Ronald Reagan officially declared war on cocaine, determined to do what was necessary to eliminate that drug threat. This did not bring any visible results. In 1988 alone, 300,000 babies were born with cocaine addiction in the United States.
The spread of cocaine has taken a threatening nature and was a genuine disaster after the emergence of illegal trade on the streets in 1986-1990 "crack" cocaine Smoking in the form of the base. The number of deaths from cocaine overdose, as well as long-term use, including by women during pregnancy and lactation, has increased dramatically, and cocaine, together with heroin and amphetamines, has become a particularly dangerous drug.