Codeine (3 - methylmorphine) is an alkaloid from the opiate group isolated from opium poppy. Percentage of codeine in poppy from 0.2 to 2%. It is also obtained by synthetic method-methylation of morphine. It is also possible the reverse reaction (demethylation). Chemical formula (C18H21NO3).
The nature of codeine similar to morphine but less pronounced analgesic properties (7 times lower). The Codeine strongly expressed the ability to reduce the excitability of the cough center which is used as an antitussive drug of Central action, and as a painkiller.
Today codeine is part of the following drugs: Solpadein, Nurofen plus, Kaffetin, Pentalgin, Sedalgin, Kofeks, Codelist, Terpincod, Kodterpin, Codarin, Sedan-M Codesin, Tetralgin, Tropicamide, and several others.
Due to the universal availability of codeine-containing drugs, this type of drug has become very popular among drug users. Despite the fact that codeine-containing drugs should be released in pharmacies only with a prescription, there are no problems with their purchase. Numerous control purchases in pharmacy kiosks have shown that pharmacists and pharmacists, in pursuit of immediate profit, sell these drugs without a prescription. At the same time, they know that he is a drug addict, and accompany the purchase of the drug with a syringe. Even more deplorable is the situation with Internet pharmacies. There's no control at all. You can order prescription drugs in a few clicks, and no recipe is asked. Law enforcement agencies must deal with this situation, but apparently they do not have such a desire, since quite a lot of time has passed since the adoption of the law on prescription of codeine-containing drugs, and who is still there.
The same codeine drugs used to manufacture a terrible of the drug Desomorphine, has a much stronger narcotic effect than the original codeine.
Effects of the use of Codeine:
After the intake of codeine undergoes hepatic metabolism (mainly demethylation with the formation of norcodeine) and then excreted by the kidneys. About 10% of the dose of codeine administered after demethylation is transformed into morphine. It is this fraction that explains the analgesic effect of codeine, because it itself has a very weak affinity for opioid receptors. When using high doses like other opiates codeine causes drug intoxication.
When codeine is used as a drug, dependence is formed in a relatively short time (like addiction to heroin and other drugs of the opiate group).
Codeine abstinence "breaking" develops more slowly than morphine, but may occur within six months after the start of the drug. Peak "scrap" comes on the 5th-6th day: painful feeling of dissatisfaction, tension, pain in all muscles, toothache, intestinal disorders (constipation, then diarrhea), runny nose, sneezing, lacrimation. "Breaking" causes exacerbation of concomitant and chronic diseases.
With the simultaneous use of codeine and ethanol, as well as drugs that inhibit the Central nervous system, it is possible to increase the sedative effect, the suppression of the respiratory center and the oppression of the Central nervous system.
Codeine addiction proceeds almost the same as when taking other opiates, but has its own characteristics. When using drugs containing codeine, may develop the so-called "codeine parish": a feeling of warmth, narrowing of consciousness, periodic "shutdown" for a few minutes.
Can often occur with mental disorders in the form of excitement: the excitement, the giggling, the swagger. Intoxicated says a lot and speaks loudly, constantly moving, can not sit in one place, can not focus and concentrate on anything, engage in productive activities.
History of Codeine:
1832-codeine for the first time in its pure form was obtained by the French chemist Pierre Jean Robiquet.
1905 - the first mention of the possibility of getting used to codeine appeared.
in 30-ies of XX century became widely known drug properties of codeine.
In the early 90's codeine (Syrup, syrup, medicine) were very common among blacks. Closely connected with hip-hop culture.
In the 2000s, the codeine epidemic is developing among drug addicts with terrible force. This contributes to popularization of the drug desomorphine.