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What is Dextromethorphan (DXM)

Dextromethorphan (DXM)

Dextromethorphan ((+)- 3-methoxy-17-methyl-(9a,13a,14a)-morphinane), DXM — antitussive. Is an optical isomer of levomethorphan, which is morphine-like. Dextromethorphan was previously classified as a synthetic opioid whose structure resembles codeine. Currently, dextromethorphan should not be classified as an opioid because its main effects are not transmitted through opioid receptors. When using the drug as a surfactant, it is assumed that the mechanism of action is associated with the NMDA receptor, whose functions are blocked. This, in turn, prevents the influence of glutamate, which activates the Central nervous system, which leads to disruption of the functions of the Central nervous system. It is also assumed that binding to the Sigma-1 receptor and its activation are important elements of the mechanism of action. At high and very high doses, dextromethorphan can bind to opioid receptors, reduce the return of serotonin to cells, increase the content of dopamine and cause adrenergic effects (including increased blood PRESSURE and accelerated heart rate). Chemical formula (C18H25NO).

Substance synonyms: DCM, Dext, DXM, Dex, Dextromethorphan, Dextromethorphan

In medicine, it is used to suppress cough of any origin. In therapeutic dosages does not have narcotic, analgesic and hypnotic effects. Onset of action-10-30 minutes after administration, duration-for 5-6 hours in adults and 6-9 hours-in children. In the brain, it blocks serotonin reuptake, activates Sigma receptors, blocks open NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) channels (none of these effects are permanent), which in doses of 150 mg causes the effect of intoxication.

In addition to cough suppression, dextromethorphan is used in medicine for diagnostic purposes and is used in a variety of cases — from seizures to the treatment of heroin addiction and alcoholism, some chronic neurodegenerative diseases.

Because dextromethorphan in high doses has effects similar to psychedelic and dissociative substances and similar in some ways to the effects of ketamine and phencyclidine, it is sometimes used for drug intoxication. Dextromethorphan has not been widely used as a psychoactive substance (surfactant) for decades, but since the early 2000s, its use as a surfactant has steadily increased worldwide. As surfactants, this compound is used mainly by young people aged 12-20 years. Among consumers of more expensive drugs, DXM has developed a reputation as a" drug for losers", that is, something that people use when they have nothing else to do.

Dextromethorphan and its metabolite, dextrophan, are so-called dissociative compounds. This implies, for example, feelings of alienation from your body. Hallucinations of various kinds are also not uncommon, and they are thought to be similar to those caused by LSD, phencyclidine (PCP), and ecstasy (MDMA). According to some consumers, the hallucinations caused by dextromethorphan can be very different from the hallucinations caused by LSD. According to them, dextromethorphan causes visible especially with closed eyes or in a dark room mottled moving formation. The effects of the compound depend on the person, the dose taken, individual tolerability, as well as other surfactants taken simultaneously with him.

The outward signs of acceptance of Dextromethorphan:

Increased vigor
Anxiety
Visual and auditory sensations
Euphoria
Strong visual and auditory sensations
Imbalance
Hallucinations
Energy
Visual and hearing impairment
Periodic confusion
Slow reaction
Weakening of the ability to process information
Obsessive fears or panic
Partial dissociation
Complete dissociation
Hallucinations or illusions
Incoordination

Consequences of the use of Dextromethorphan:

Dextromethorphan in high doses, other than those recommended by pharmacists, is addictive and addictive. With a single use of the drug, nausea, allergic reactions, tachycardia, dizziness may appear, the body temperature rises. Regular use of large doses of the chemical leads to mental disorders, high blood pressure, breathing problems, there are cases of panic.
In drug addicts, "sitting" on the DXM for a long period of time, significantly deteriorating memory, loss of weight, disturbed cerebral blood flow. Have drug addicts can be often meet depressive state of, various mania, paranoia. Strokes are also common. In Dextromethorphan addicts damaged brain (with irreversible), liver, kidneys and pancreas. They end up dying early.

Medicine advises to go to the emergency room, if the dose of dextromethorphan exceeds 7.5-10 mg / kg weight. For men, this means a dose of dextromethorphan of about 600-800 mg. it should be noted that according to Pharmaca Fennica, the lethal dose of dextromethorphan for humans is about 500 mg. in fact, the lethal dose is much higher. For example, according to the Erowid database, the average dose is 200-400 mg and the high dose is 300-600 mg. People who have taken a small dose, and who have symptoms above the weak-fever, decline in consciousness - should also contact the emergency room or at least a toxicology information center. In the case of joint adoption of other surfactants, there are more serious grounds for recourse to emergency care.

Consequences of the use of Methylphenidate:

Dextromethorphan was synthesized in the framework of research funded by the us Navy and the us Central intelligence Agency to create a replacement for codeine, which has a high antitussive activity, but a pronounced narcotic effect, and, therefore, addiction to its reception, followed by the formation of a drug dependence syndrome, which complicated its widespread use.

The drug was patented in 1949. In 1954, the Federal drug administration (FDA) approved its sale as a cough medicine. During the 1960s and 1970s, dextromethorphan became available to the public as "Romilar"tablets.

In 1973, "Romilar" was banned for sale due to the accumulated information about the frequent abuse of it and in 1977 in an attempt to prevent recreational, that is, not related to medical, consumption containing DXM tablets were withdrawn from sale and replaced with a syrupy dosage form. DXM has been reduced or mixed with other ingredients to prevent recreational use.

However, in the 1980s the popularity of DXM in the United States increased again, prompting the FDA to convene a special Commission to more accurately determine the degree of additivity [ability to cause drug dependence-approx. auth.] this substance. As a result, it was recommended to collect additional data on the toxicity of DXM and epidemiology of consumption of drugs containing it among drug addicts. In 1992, the Commission met again and concluded that DXM abuse existed in small communities and was popular among adolescents.

In the mid-1990s, the drug "Coricidin Cough&Cold" was released to the pharmaceutical market in the United States, one tablet of which contained 30 mg DXM and 4 mg of the antihistamine chlorpheniramine maleate. Manufacturer-American pharmaceutical company " Schering-Plough Corp.". It became popular in the drug-prone teenage environment, but had an extremely unpleasant side-anticholinergic side effects (dry mouth, blurred vision, confusion, etc.) at high doses.





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