Ecstasy, the slang name methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine) is a semi - synthetic psychoactive compound of the amphetamine series, belonging to the group of phenylethylamines, which has an stimulating effect with a slight hallucinogenic effect. Chemical formula (C11H15NO2).
Ecstasy has several synonyms in different languages (Adam, Rolls, Bagels, Jolly candy, Magic Pills, Stimulants, Drives, E, "e", X, X-Ti-si, Wheels, Circles, Round, Kruglyashi, Buttons, Tabla, Washers, Euphoria, Cadillac, Beans, Clarity, e, eksta, awe, Love, Pig, Smile, Snow, Ex-E, b Vitamins, Vitamin E, Cakes, Sneakers, Music, Adam, Beans, E, Rolls, X, XTC, Extasy).
As practice shows ecstasy is a collective concept. As a rule, ecstasy can be called any drug based on amphetamines and substituted amphetamines, sold in tablets and intended for oral use in a specific disco setting. This is due to the fact that often the buyer does not know what substances in what ratio are in the tablet and guess about it by the action of the drug. In fact, there can be anything: MDMA, substances of a number of amphetamines, and many other substances, such as psychoactive (for example safrol, isosafrol, isosafrol, glycol, piperonylaceton, ammonia) and neutral (fillers, dyes, impurities, for example starch, lactose, sucrose, calcium carbonate, soda, caffeine, aspirin, paracetamol, quinine).
So, very similar to MDMA drug MDEA (MDE, 3,4-methylendioxy-N-ethylamphetamine), chemical formula (C12H17NO2). The mechanism of action of MDEA is similar to the mechanism of action of MDMA and consists in the allocation of a large number of neurotransmitter serotonin, which participates in the regulation of mood and sensations of pleasure. The typical dose of MDEA is slightly greater than that of MDMA (100-200 mg). Psychedelic effect lasts from 3 to 5 hours very often ecstasy tablets contain this drug instead of MDMA.
Effects of ecstasy use:
The effect of ecstasy occurs 15-60 minutes after oral administration. The main mechanism of ecstasy is the increased release of serotonin into the brain, which causes all the pleasant effects (improvement of health, the appearance of sensations of satisfaction, happiness and love.) It is also found that ecstasy also contributes to the increased release of the hormone oxytocin. Usually, the concentration of this hormone rises sharply in the body during orgasm.
However, for all the good you have to pay, and the human body uporabniskega MDMA inevitably expect negative effects: Reduced seizure threshold (including the jaw, eye twitching, tremor). Nausea, sweating and fever, rapid dehydration, increased heart rate and blood pressure, arrhythmia,anorexia, anxiety, panic, depression caused by the depletion of serotonin, sleep disturbance, paranoid reactions.
With prolonged - for several months-use develops long-term tolerance to the drug, when, regardless of the dose of MDMA almost completely loses its effectiveness (ecstasy loses its magical power).
Scientists from the University of Amsterdam have found that even small doses of methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") can be detrimental to the brain. The first studies of the neurotoxic effects of low doses of this drug in patients who have recently started to use "ecstasy"led to such conclusions.
The death of MDMA comes mainly from acute heart failure, dehydration, as well as poisoning from impurities that are almost always contained in the drug.
Signs of ecstasy use:
The man seems very animated, moving sharply and fitfully, all the actions are performed quickly. It constantly carries somewhere some force, it is difficult to sit still, he is constantly in motion and active, and this activity may have no practical purpose. He can't stick with any permanence in deeds and thoughts, so it can take a lot, and all the throws. To say such a person is difficult, as it will again "call forward", he will not be able to discuss one topic, his thoughts are to kill one another, and if you speak of it still, to listen - for nothing. It is difficult for him to be passive, even if a listener, it is difficult to be alone with him without distracting himself with something. He can suddenly think of some trip and hurry on the road, but soon quit and this activity and still will not go anywhere. It is similar to a tennis ball, on which one constantly slams the racket, causing it to jump from place to place, not giving rest and permanence, at least something. In this case, being under intoxication, it may be for days without sleep; the pupils are dilated, skin is dry, rapid pulse.
From the history of ecstasy:
1912 - MDMA for the first time synthesizes the company "Merck Pharmaceuticals".
1914 - "Merck Pharmaceuticals" patents MDMA.
1953-Military chemical center studies toxicity MDMA, malchika terminated on pigs, rats, mice, monkeys and dogs.
1965-Alexander Shulgin synthesizes MDMA but does not experiment on himself yet.
1967-the first small clandestine laboratories produce MDMA.
1968-Alexander Shulgin began experimenting with MDMA and presented his research to other scientists.
August 1970-the first publicly published report on the use of MDMA as a drug.
1976 - first academic article on MDMA.
1977-MDMA begins to sell on the streets as a drug.
1977-great Britain includes MDMA in class "a". Class " a " is the most controlled drug category in England.
1977-1981 Eight people were registered in intensive care units in connection with the use of MDMA.
1981 - 1985 4 years no reported cases of "poisoning" MDMA.
1984. MDMA gets the street name "ecstasy" in California.
July 1, 1985, the DEA temporarily places MDMA in schedule I.
1987-First report of human death due to MDMA use.
December 22, 1987-MDMA removed from list I.
March 23, 1988 MDMA is placed back into schedule I.
1989 year. Rave, electronic dance music and "ecstasy", feeding them, lead to"the second summer of love." Acid house band and its accompanying t-shirts with a smiling face are in fashion and charts.
1991-Alexander and Ann Shulgin published "PiHKAL" documenting more than 250 drug compounds, including MDMA, mescaline, 2C-B, 2C-T-7, 2C-T-2 and many others.
1995. The death of Leah Betts after taking "ecstasy" tablets on the day of her 18th birthday.
2003. 6230 persons have been found guilty and have been warned or fined for offences related to the use of ecstasy.
2005. In a study involving 500 students from Edinburgh, 36% said they took "ecstasy", 75% of them called "ecstasy" a positive force in our lives."
2008 year. April, MDMA began to return to official medicine. In particular, Israel began clinical trials of the method of treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder with ecstasy, it was attended by veterans of the military campaign in Lebanon.