Ephedrine (1-phenyl-2-methylamino-propanol â€” 1-hydrochloride) is an alkaloid, a psychostimulant of plant origin. Contains (along with his stereoisomer pseudoephedrine) in various types of plants of the genus ephedra, yew berries and some other plants. The chemical formula is (C10H15NO). It is used mainly in the form of ephedrine hydrochloride, and is a white crystalline powder with a bitter taste, the crystals of which have an elongated shape. In the dosage form is available in the form of drops, solution for injection and tablets.
Ephedrine has a number of synonyms ( Epho, Fairy, Mini Thins, Sudafed, Trucker's Speed, ephedrinum hydrochloricum, ethalone, ephedrine, peo-fedrin, sanedrin, ephedrine).
In medicine ephedrine hydrochloride is used for the treatment of bronchial asthma, hypotensive disease, allergic diseases, blood loss, poisoning drugs and hypnotics, etc.Also it is used as a means for weight loss.
However, like many other medications prescribed by a doctor, ephedrine hydrochloride was also used by drug addicts. Ephedrine is one of the most common drugs. This drug is quite popular due to its low cost and accessibility. In addition, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are important raw materials for the illegal artisanal production of drugs such as methamphetamine and ephedrine.
Effects of ephedrine use:
Ephedrine stimulates a-and b-adrenoreceptors. At the peripheral sympathomimetic action of ephedrine close to adrenaline, but has a less dramatic but much more prolonged effect.Ephedrine also has a specific stimulating effect on the Central nervous system.
The narcotic effect develops in 15-20 seconds after administration and lasts 4-8 hours. Mood rises, lost sense of time, I want to talk a lot, to communicate with people. At repeated receptions duration of action of a drug decreases, and aspiration to introduce it increases again. Getting used to ephedrine manifests itself quite quickly â€“ enough two-three practices. Sometimes the drug is repeated 8-10 times a day. As a result, the dose of the drug reaches 4-6 g per day.
Upon the termination of ephedrine comes a sharp decline in health and mood, marked weakness, fatigue and lethargy, there is irritability, anger, severe depression. The addict does not want to do anything, he can not think anything, there is a decrease in intelligence and memory, disruption of the brain. Attempts to "awaken" him from such a state may cause aggression on his part. Many addicts, after trying ephedrine, later move to more terrible drugs â€“ heroin, methamphetamine, desomorphine and other available to him.
Signs of ephedrine use:
Depending on the time of taking the last dose drug addict, he can observe the following signs: dry mouth, increased heart rate, high mood , loss of sense of time, talkativeness, weakness and lethargy, irritability, anger, severe depression, insomnia, loss of appetite constant depression.
The history of ephedrine:
Ephedra was used as a medicinal plant in China 5,000 years ago. Its active components are alkaloids ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine (phenylpropanolamine) and norpseudoephedrine (Katin).
1885 - Japanese chemist Nagai Nagayoshi for the first time highlights the ephedrine from the herb ephedra Chinese.
1919 a Japanese chemist Akira Ogata first got crystal meth in the restoration of ephedrine using red phosphorus and iodine.
In the 20-ies of XX century Chinese pharmacologist Ko Hui Chen and American pharmacologist Karl Schmidt worked in the Beijing Union medical College, again allocated ephedrine.
1927-the American company "Eli Lilly" started large-scale production of medicines based on ephedrine.
In the 1980s, the proliferation of ephedrine-containing drugs forced many countries to adopt legal restrictions on the circulation of ephedrine-containing drugs.