Fentanyl (N-(1-phenylaminopyrimidine-4-yl)-N-phenylpropanamide) is a synthetic opioid analgesic of high efficiency, potent agonist mu-opioid receptors. Has a strong, but short-term (with a one-time introduction) analgesic effect. Effektivnosti fentanyl is hundreds of times greater than that of morphine. Chemical manure (C22H28N2O).
Synonyms of fentanyl: Sentonil, Fentanil, Fentanylcitrat, fentanyli citras, Fentanyl citrate, Fentanest, Haldid, Leptanal, Sentonyl, Sublimaze, white Chinese, crocodile.
Fentanyl and its derivatives are the most horrible and deadly drugs in the world. Fentanyl has many analogues, many of which are synthesized in clandestine laboratories using conventional reagents available and simple chemical equipment. To date, more than a hundred fentanyl analogues have been synthesized, which differ only in strength and duration.
Among them are: 3-methylfentanyl (the most common analogue of fentanyl), alpha-methylfentanyl (white Chinese, synthetic heroin), Sufentanil, Trimethylpentane, Meperidine (demerol), Perfluoropentane, Carfentanil, Lofentanil, Alfentanil, Acetyl-alpha-methylfentanyl, Beta-hydroxyfentanyl, Thiofentanyl, alpha-methylthiofentanyl Pair-ftorfenazin, Beta-hydroxy-3-methylfentanyl.
High efficiency, low doses required to create the effect, the plurality of effects produced, the possibility of obtaining structural analogues make fentanyl very popular. Despite the worldwide fight against illicit production, distribution and consumption of fentanyl, their extremely high efficiency and relative ease of synthesis make these drugs a serious threat to the world.
Drug addicts use fentanyl vnutrivenno, intramuscular and oral. Sometimes smoke and inhale with your nose.
Consequences of the use of fentanyl:
Fentanyl produces all the effects and side effects of classic narcotic analgesics. Among the currently known means they are the most effective analgesics that can bring lasting relief in pain when taking low doses.
Fentanyl has a depressing effect on the respiratory center, slows down the heart rate, little effect on blood PRESSURE. Analgesic effect when in / in the introduction develops after 1-3 minutes, and when in / m-after 10-15 minutes; duration of action with a single introduction of no more than 30 minutes.
At regular reception of analogs of FNT, as well as in case of other narcotic analgesics, tolerance and physiological dependence develops. In experiments with animals confirmed that fentanyl derivatives have a cross-substitution with morphine and opiates like possess narcotic activity. Opium addicts perceive fentanyl as a substitute for heroin with similar effects.
Pulmonary edema and embolism are diagnosed in almost all cases of deaths caused by fentanyl overdose. There are also old traces of injections and places of new injections. The results of the autopsy and the circumstances surrounding the death of fentanyl are similar to those of the "sudden death" that followed the heroin. The immediate cause of death is most often respiratory depression, which is consistent with the known pharmacological properties of fentanyl. Less common symptoms include bronchopneumonia or suction of gastric contents into the lungs.
Alcohol intake is a significant risk factor. In a large number of cases, ethanol is associated with deaths from fentanyl overdose and is also present in quantities that cause normal alcohol intoxication.
Signs of consumption of fentanyl:
Signs of consumption of fentanyl are the appearance of euphoria, increased muscle tone, difficulty breathing, nausea, vomiting, constriction of pupils.
Symptoms of an overdose of fentanyl are nausea, vomiting, convulsions, bradycardia, respiratory failure, chest wall rigidity, hypotension and coma.
From the history of fentanyl:
End 50-ies of the 20th century-fentanyl synthesized Belgian pharmaceutical company (Janssen). Under the name sublime it is introduced into clinical medicine as an intravenous anesthetic for pre - and post-operative medical care.
The mid 70-ies of the 20th century - the beginning of the illegal use of fentanyl as doping in horse racing and its use by physicians, nurses and pharmacists for non-medical purposes.
1979-appearance of the first illegally synthesized analogues of fentanyl. On the streets there were alpha-methylfentanyl (white Chinese, synthetic heroin), which was 2 times stronger than the fentanyl and 200 times stronger than morphine.
80th year of the 20th century - in the illegal sale appeared at least 10 different analogues of fentanyl, followed by over 100 recorded deaths directly attributed to their action.
1985-Peak of illegal use of fentanyl in the United States.
1988 - the underground laboratory synthesized and dumped into the illegal market 3-methylfentanyl - powerful and most dangerous analog of fentanyl, 6,000 times greater than morphine and 1,000 times the heroin on the efficacy and caused a new outbreak of deaths among opium addicts.