Heroin-diacetylmorphine, 3,6-diacetyl derivative of morphine, or diamorphine â€” a powerful semi-synthetic opiate painkiller with a chemical formula (C21H23NO5) 3,6-diacetyl-N-methyl-4,5-epoxymorphinen-7. The name Heroin comes from the German word "heroisch" - hero.
Heroin is banned from production and use because of its ability to cause rapid drug addiction.The synthesis of heroin is simple and begins with the extraction of morphine from opium and the acetylation reaction using anhydride or acetic acid chloroanhydride. The production of one gram of heroin takes 10 kilograms of opium.
Pure heroin is a white crystalline powder. Produced mainly in underground conditions, crude heroin has a yellowish or grayish-brown hue and is characterized by unpleasant odor and bitter taste. Sometimes it is mixed with sugar, which gives the artisanal heroin a sweet taste.
Currently, a large part of the opiate addicts use it heroin, as it has a strong narcotic effect, relative low cost and quickly develop physical and psychological dependence.
Heroin has many synonyms in Russian and in English (Acetominphen, Diacetylmorphine, Diamorphine, Tat, White, Garrick, Gerasim, Heroin, Buckwheat, Gardos, Gerondas, Dirty, Shit, Hard, Slow, Pepper, Powder, Quiet, Rough, Dull, Dope, H, Junk, Smack)
The intoxicating effect of heroin is manifested by taking only 1 mg of the drug. A single "dose" is from 10 to 50 mg.Due to the fact that tolerance to the drug increases very quickly, for drug addicts with the experience of daily total dose increases to 2 grams.
Getting into the brain, heroin molecules as if "drop the shell" (lose acetyl groups) and turn into morphine molecules, causing excessive electromagnetic excitation of neurons. So that such hyperstimulation does not cause overexcitation and, as a consequence, the mass death of nerve cells, the brain commands the body to produce a large number of endorphins. Endorphins - or" pleasure hormones "- cause a counter-wave of relaxation that protects nerve cells from"burnout."
Morphine excitement and endorphin inhibition, acting at the same time, introduce the body into a state of stupor, nervous system like "off" and ceases to accept and process external signals and pulses. Thus, the organism seems to be concentrated only on internal feelings.
After the injection, some somnolence, while others are made excessively talkative. In the use of high doses is often a state of slumber, when the eyes are closed in mid-sentence, and his head leaning on his chest. Other physical effects of heroin include sweating, puffing, itching, increased urination, constipation, slow breathing and heartbeat. Body temperature down. - Still, despite the slowdown in the vital functions, the mind of a heroin addict is usually clear, thinking actively. After 4 to 8 hours the effect wears off.
Effects of heroin use:
Addiction to heroin develops quickly enough, so that addicts gradually increase the daily dose, which almost always exceeds the financial capacity of the person. After the third examination may experience persistent physical dependence. After a month and a half of regular use, the second stage begins, when it becomes almost impossible for most drug addicts to cope with drug addiction on their own.
Abstinent syndrome - a kind of "drug hunger"-is manifested five to ten hours after the last use. Its first stage is marked by bad mood and irritability. As well as some physiological manifestation: greatly enlarged pupils, watery eyes, runny nose and chills, as well as increased flow and salivation. The second stage of the withdrawal syndrome occurs on the second day, and manifests itself in a strong tension of the muscles of the back and limbs. In addition, the symptoms of the first stage are intensified, as well as an unreasonable sense of anxiety appears, pulse and breathing become more frequent, body temperature rises, tachycardia, arrhythmia, tremor and nausea arise up to vomiting. By the end of the second day, pain in the back muscles significantly increases, there are breaking out the pain of the muscles of the limbs and convulsive information of the masticatory muscles. Increases depression, lost appetite, increased irritability and aggressive behavior. This condition is a drug called "heroin brittle".
External signs of heroin use:
Depressed consciousness, somnolence, sudden contraction of the pupils (the pupils of a pinhead), decrease or absence of reaction of pupils to light, spasmodic, jerky, noisy breathing, lowering blood pressure, increasing the clinical manifestations of left ventricular failure. Symptoms of regular use are bruises and scars on the veins, ulcers and other soft tissue infections. There are bacterial infections of blood vessels, as well as various complications in the liver and kidneys, as well as in the genitourinary system. Heroin was synthesized in 1874 in the Hospital of St. Mary London Adler Wright from the morphine by attaching two acetylenic groups. Heroin began producing pharmaceutical company "Bayer"in 1898 the development of a synthesis of this drug was doing Henry Dresser (the inventor of Aspirin).
From the history of Heroin:
Heroin was synthesized in 1874 at St. Mary's Hospital in London by Adler Wright from morphine by attaching two acetyl groups. But at first the drug was not recognized by pharmacists.
In 1897, Felix Hoffman (Felix Hoffman), an employee of the German pharmaceutical company Bayer AG, synthesized diacetylmorphine again. The drug was sold as a soothing cough and as a non-addictive replacement for morphine (morphine). This contributed to the, that heroin causes relatively serene euphoria with minimal deviations in behavior and intelligence (provided his brief use).
From 1898 to 1910 heroin was sold as a replacement for morphine and cough medicine for children. However, it turned out that the new medicine, which was widely sold around the world and worked miracles of anesthesia, leads patients to unheard of drug addiction - it did not come immediately, but surpassed everything that was known before.
Because of this, in 1913, the production and sale of heroin by Bayer was temporarily suspended. Meanwhile, the United States first severely restricts, and by 1924 completely prohibits the use of heroin for any purpose. However, in the period from 1925 to 1930-th years of the drug worldwide has sold more than 30 tons.
In Germany, heroin was sold in pharmacies until 1971. However, by prescription only. Currently, no firm in the world produces and sells heroin as a drug â€” legally it is produced and sold only for research purposes or for use in palliative care (to relieve the suffering of the patient) and in very small quantities by, for example, chemical corporations such as Sigma-Aldrich.