Ketamine (2-(methylamino)-2-(2-chlorophenyl) — cyclohexane hydrochloride) is an anesthetic of synthetic origin, blocking the action of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor without respiratory depression and blood circulation and has hallucinogenic properties. The chemical formula of the drug(C13H16ClNO).
Ketamine has several synonyms in different languages (Kalipsol, Vetalar, Ketalar , Ketanest,Ketavet, Ketaject, Ketaject, keta, Keta, cat Tranquilizer, Ketamine, Ket, K,Special K, Vitamin K , Ketalar, Ketaset, Narcomon.)
Ketamine comes in vials of 10 and 50 ml. He looks like an oily liquid. It can also occur as a white crystalline powder with a weak characteristic odor, easily soluble in alcohol and water.
Ketamine is used as an oral (nasal) method, as well as intravenous or intramuscular administration.
The main medical purpose of ketamine is a surgical anesthetic. With a single intravenous administration of ketamine, the narcotic effect occurs 30-60 seconds after administration and lasts 5-10 minutes (up to 15 minutes). With intramuscular administration of ketamine at a dose of 4-8 mg / kg, the effect occurs after 2-4 min (up to 6-8 min.) and lasts an average of 12-25 min (up to 30-40 min.). Ketamine causes a pronounced analgesic effect (up to 2 hours.), but insufficient muscle relaxation. With the introduction of ketamine, pharyngeal, laryngeal and cough reflexes remain.
Ketamine gained popularity among fans of psychoactive substances due to its hallucinogenic properties, even though ketamine does not have the ability to cause euphoria (state of bliss) when taken. When used for the purposes of pleasure and new sensations they are classified as dissociative means. At a low dosage, they have a weak stimulating effect, which is followed by hallucinations when increasing the dosage. Very popular at youth parties and discos because of the relative cheapness
Addicts the dosage of ketamine is selected depending on the mode of administration and the duration of effect. I usually start with small doses of the order of 0.2-0.4 mg/kg and then gradually increased. A dangerous dose is about 20 mg/kg.
The action of the drug can be divided into three stages:
The first stage-the Entrance - begins almost immediately after taking the drug, and is characterized by a feeling of "stretching" and "twisting" the body.
The second stage is called Failure. At this stage, the consciousness "breaks" from the body and the person almost completely falls out of reality. At the same time, many note the striking sobriety of thinking. The experiences at this point vary widely from person to person, but many include in their descriptions alternative spaces and universes, predicting the future, machines and mechanisms of unknown purpose, and a feeling of limitless loneliness. Sometimes taking the drug leads to the so - called "bad trip" - a condition in which the patient experiences severe negative experiences.
The third phase-the Exit. At this stage, there is a gradual return of consciousness to reality. It is characterized by the feeling, called in the slang of the rubber boys – when muscles are not fully controlled by consciousness. As a result, a person acts as a "rubber". It is best to lie down or sit.
Consequences of ketamine use:
The risk of serious consequences when taking ketamine increases significantly if you find it with alcohol and barbiturates – that is, substances that inhibit breathing.
Frequent use of ketamine can lead to some physical problems, such as impaired digestion and urination. Also there is one problem, which is referred to as rekreacionnye users of ketamine, and doctors - these convulsions. From this we can conclude that ketamine is contraindicated epileptics.
Another danger lies in the dissociation that accompanies the trip. Ketamine users reported such a deep sense of reality that they no longer cared if they were alive or not. This can lead to what can be called "automation of the body": - automatic, unintentional physical actions, when the mind travels in one world, and the body performs actions in another. People can walk on walls, under cars, at the same time at them coordination is strongly broken. Or they can inadvertently catch up with a lot of ketamine on the machine.
With regular use of the drug quickly develops tolerance. Physical dependence on drugs is formed at 4 and 7 months of regular consumption. Withdrawal syndrome in case of refusal of the drug in this case has the following symptoms: on the first or second day there are disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, persistent insomnia, feeling of devastation and loss of strength, as well as pain in the muscles of the hands and back. The acute stage of abstinence lasts up to ten days. After the acute stage comes the period moderately expressed apathetic state.
Signs of ketamine use:
The use of ketamine may be accompanied by involuntary movements, hypertonicity, hallucinatory phenomena. With intravenous administration of ketamine solution, sometimes pain and redness of the skin along the vein are possible, with awakening - psychomotor excitation and relatively long-term disorientation. Behaviour air of detachment from reality; as from excitement to apathy, possible aggression; loss of orientation in time and space; auditory and visual hallucinations; it reflects the incoherence of thought; dilated pupils; impaired gait (ataxia).
From the history of ketamine:
In 1962, ketamine under the working title "CI-581" was first synthesized by American researcher Calvin Stevens
1963-Ketamine was patented in Belgium.
1965-Ketamine is found to be a good analgesic.
1965-first reports of scientists on ketamine use. Professor Edward Domino described ketamine as a potent psychedelic drug.
1966-ketamine is patented by Parke-Davis laboratory for use as an analgesic on humans and animals.
In the late 1960s, ketamine was used as an analgesic agent in the United States during the Vietnam War.
1969 - " Ketamine hydrochloride "becomes an affordable medicine called"Ketalar".
In the mid-1970s, ketamine spread all over the world. Interest in it is growing rapidly, especially in England, Sweden, Russia, Australia, and Argentina.
In 1978, there were two books that had a significant impact on the popularity of ketamine. This "Journey into the Bright World" Marcia Moore and Howard Alltounian, and "Scientist" John Lily. Both books describe the authors ' personal experiences when using the drug as a drug.
March 18, 1981-DEA is in favour of placing ketamine on schedule III, but this is not the case.
1995-Ketamine was added to the list of dangerous drugs, but not to list III as planned.
April 9, 1999, the DEA again supported the placement of ketamine in schedule III.
August 12, 1999-Ketamine becomes officially illegal and finally entered in schedule III in the United States.
1987-2000 – reported 12 deaths related to ketamine (7 in the US and 5 in Europe).
In Russia, ketamine has been used as a drug since the early 1990s, when many so-called psychedelic literature appeared in the country, and other well – known hallucinogens – such as LSD-were virtually absent from the illegal market.