LSD (LSD â€” 25, abbreviated from the German LSD Lysersaure Diethylamid) is a diethylamide of d-lysergic acid, a semi-synthetic psychoactive substance from the triptamine family, most often referred to hallucinogens. Chemical formula (C20H25N3O)
LSD has several synonyms in different languages (Paper, Twenty-Fifth, DLC, DLC-25, Drop, acid, Acid, Crystal, LSD, lyser, Lemon, Lucy, Mark, MicroDot, Blotter, Sugar, Acid, Blotter, Cid, Doses, LSD, Microdots, Tabs, Trips).)
LSD is a substance without color, odor, slightly bitter taste. It has a high activity: one gram contains about 5000 doses. Crystallizes in the form of prisms. The water does not dissolve, sensitive to oxygen, chlorine and ultraviolet, but in the dark, at low humidity and low temperature can be stored for many years. LSD is synthesized from lysergic acid derived from ergot, a microscopic fungus, parasitic on cereal plants (e.g. wheat). Since the process of chemical synthesis requires special skills and equipment, the bulk of the drug is produced in specially equipped laboratories.
Of all known drugs, LSD is one of the most powerful tools that can change a person's mood and perception â€” enteral doses of only 30 micrograms can have their effect for 6 to 12 hours. LSD, like plants -- hallucinogens, acts on certain groups of receptors in the regulation of serotonin, known as receptors 5-HT2, its effects on humans are most strongly manifested in two segments of the brain. The first is the cerebral cortex, the area responsible for mood, consciousness and perception; the second is the subcortical region, which receives signals from the receptors of the senses from all points of the body and is described as a "detector of new sensations" of the brain that recognizes important external influences.
LSD is rapidly and completely absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract or through the mucous membranes of the mouth, and the first symptoms of intoxication may appear within 10 minutes. It can last even for 12 hours. The effects caused by LSD in the psyche (in common language called "trip") vary greatly among different people and depend heavily on factors such as previous psychedelic experience, the current internal state of the psyche, the current situation and the external environment, as well as, importantly, the total dose of the substance. The reaction of different people to the same dose can vary greatly. There are cases when, even when taking ultra-high doses (15,000 Âµg), no visible effect was observed. The effects also vary from trip to trip and even vary within one trip.
During the period of LSD, the mood can change from euphoria to depression and Vice versa. Many are beginning to suffer persecution mania, become distrustful and hostile, highly sensitive to any touch. Their aggressiveness increases especially towards the end of the action of LSD.
Effects of the use of LSD:
Regarding the danger of LSD, there is no clear opinion -- different scientists Express different points of view. But they all agree that LSD, like any psychedelic substance, can manifest latent mental illness. Since LSD is a non-specific catalyst of subconscious processes, its application can lead to the opening of latent mental problems, including schizophrenia, epilepsy or other permanent mental disorder.
Physiological harm from long-term exposure to LSD on the human body is not detected.
In the short term, LSD causes, although temporary, but very serious distortion of the world. Under the influence of the drug there is a great danger of injuries associated with driving vehicles and other complex mechanisms. Another danger associated with the use of LSD is the so-called flashbacks. Flashback is expressed in an unexpected return of the subject to the condition that he experienced earlier when taking the drug. About one in four LSD users found themselves in a situation where LSD-trip started spontaneously, without first taking the drug. It is believed that the reason for the flashback is the ability of the psyche to recover the details of some past events, especially those that caused in its time the most exciting and emotional experiences.
Since LSD has extremely low toxicity, an overdose of LSD requires taking a huge dose of the drug. At the moment, there is no documentary evidence of a fatal outcome from an overdose of LSD.
There is no evidence that LSD causes physical dependence.
Tolerance is expressed in the short term: when the drug is not used for three or more days, the susceptibility of the organism to the drug is restored.
LSD can also cause uterine contractions, so it is contraindicated for pregnant women.
Signs of use of LSD:
Enlarged pupils, darkening of the field of vision, selection of thick saliva, increased body temperature, high blood pressure, loss of sense of direction, distance and time, sweating, nausea, tremor, lifting of body hair, feeling cold, fever, fatigue, increased muscle tension, a variety of strange sensations, including sexual.
From the history of LSD:
LSD-25 was first received in 1938 by Swiss chemist albert Hoffman, working on the creation of drugs to improve blood circulation from the alkaloids of sporyn, but the psychotropic properties of this compound were discovered by him accidentally in 1943.
In 1947, after a systematic study of the clinical effects of LSD at the University of Zurich psychiatric hospital, Delysid (Sandoz), a tartrate-based LSD, was launched into the pharmaceutical market. Some time it was assumed that the study of the new drug will understand the nature of schizophrenia. In the early 1950s, all of the world's major psychiatric institutions began experimenting with LSD on humans and animals.
In the 1960s, LSD research was actively conducted. Experiments carried out by the CIA (USA) within the framework of the MK Ultra program turned out to be publicized. LSD exposure has also been investigated by a number of scientists at universities in the United States and other countries. Studies by Stanislav Grof and Timothy Leary were probably best known.
Since 1962, the us begins a campaign to limit the use of the drug.
1970-the law on "Comprehensive prevention of drug abuse"was Adopted. LSD is included in the List I.
The mid-1970s - On the streets, LSD is often found in the form of impregnated squares of paper ("marks"). Until this time most often LSD sold in the form of tablets and powder.
1979-albert Hofmann publishes his book "LSD: My difficult child".
In 2005 in the "British journal of psychiatry" ("The British Journal of Psychiatry") was published an article in which the question is raised about the possibility of allowing the use of LSD for medical purposes because the alleged positive effect that can have the substance on people.
2007-Swiss health officials made it possible to conduct experiments with LSD therapy in patients with critical stages of cancer and other deadly diseases.
29 APR 2008 died Creator of LSD albert Hoffman, he was 102 years old.