Methadone (6-(dimethylamino)-4,4-diphenylheptane-3) is a synthetic drug long-acting opioid group. Methadone chemical formula: C21H27NO.
Methadone has several synonyms in different languages (amidon, Anadon, finedon, Dolfin, visaton, heptadon, Method, Med, Methadone, Dolophine, Juice, A 302, A 4624,AN 148, Avadon, Adolan, Afluol, Algidon, Algiton, Algolisina,Algolisine, Algosyn, Algolysin, Algovetan, Algoxal, Alguidon, Altose, Amidon, Amidosan, Amilon, Bethadone, Butalgin,Cephalguine, Cotidone, Depridol, Deptadol, Diadone,Diaminon, Diamone, Dianona, Disefonin, Disipan, Disket,Dolafin, Dolamid, Dolamin, Dolaphine, Dolcsona, Dolesona,Dolofina, Dolopheptan, Dolophin, Dolorex, Dolsona, Domanid,Dorexol, Eptadol, Eptadone, Espasmoalgolisina, Fenadon,Fiseptona, Fysepton, Heptadol, Heptanol, Heptanon, Hesse,Hoechst, 10820, Ketalgin, Kitalgin, Mecodin, Mefenona, Mepecton, Mephenon, Metadon, Metasedin, Methidon, Metidon, Miadona, Midadona, Miheptane, Optalguine,Palamidone, Panalgen, Parasedin, Petalgin, Phenadon,Physepton, Polamidon, Polamivet, Porfolan, Quctidina,Quotidine, Quotidon, Sedadimona, Sinalguine, Sintalgon,Sintanal, Spasmo-algolisine, Symoran, Symoron, Synthanal,Syrco, Turanone, Tussal, Tussol, Ultradon, Vemonil, Veronyl,Zefalgin).
Methadone is available in the form of medicine, syrup and tablets, as well as liquids in ampoules.
The main medical purpose of methadone - substitution therapy in the treatment of heroin and opiate addiction, as well as analgesic.
Methadone when used affects the Central nervous system, cardiovascular system and smooth muscles. The first effects begin to be felt after 20-30 minutes after oral administration, and are comparable in euphoria and duration with the action of other drugs of the opioid group. Methadone, gives a less pronounced effect of euphoria than heroin, despite this he has the ability to cause a sense of well being, feeling of warmth, drowsiness and a feeling of calm. Methadone is effective from 24 to 72 hours, depending on the dose and individual metabolism. Tolerance to methadone develops slowly.
Signs Of methadone use:
Drowsiness, lightheadedness, weakness, euphoria, dry mouth, urinary retention, constipation, slow breathing, allergic reactions, skin rash, urticaria, skin itching, headache, dizziness, impaired concentration, a sense of intoxication, confusion, blurred vision, double vision, sweating, palpitations, nausea, vomiting, disorientation, hallucinations, muscle cramps, renal failure.
Effects of Methadone use:
Methadone is as addictive as heroin. Methadone" breaking " occurs 3-4 weeks, while heroin-a few days. An overdose of methadone in almost 100% of cases are fatal. Methadone is easier to produce than heroin, it is cheaper, and because of the lack of the need for intravenous administration, it also protects drug users from HIV.
However, a drug addict taking methadone at a dose calculated by the doctor, orally, does not receive those euphoric sensations, as when taking heroin, and is looking for an opportunity to get them with other means. Therefore, drug addicts prefer to administer methadone intravenously, in a higher dosage, which, along with a long term of "breaking" and a high cost in the black market (which, in turn, is determined by a longer period than that of heroin (up to 2 days), the period of impact on the body), makes the use of methadone for rehabilitation controversial.
Very similar to methadone is the synthetic compound levo-alphacetylmethadol or LAAM (ORLAAM), which has a much longer lasting effect (from 48 to 72 hours), reducing the frequency of consumption. In 1994, it was approved as a treatment for drug addiction.
Another similar to the methadone substance is dextropropoxyphene, first produced in 1957 under the original brand Darvon. The effectiveness of this painkiller when applied orally is 1/2 and reaches 1/3, comparing with the effect of codeine, and 65 milligrams equivalent to 600 milligrams of aspirin. Dextropropoxyphene is prescribed for relief of pain weak. Most dextrose is located in list II, while drugs containing it are in list IV. More than 100 tons of dextrose monohydrate is produced in the United States annually and more than 25 million drugs are registered as products. This drug is associated with a certain amount of toxic effects and is in the top ten drugs that, according to medical research, can lead to death.
From the history of Methadone:
Methadone was originally developed by the Nazis. When opium supplies had been cut, Nazi heroin users, such as Goering, wanted to avoid possible dumps and had instructed German pharmaceutical companies to develop fully synthetic opiates, the production of which would not need poppy. In 1937, German researchers max BockmÃ¼hl and Gustav Ehrhart using diphenylacetonitrile and dimethylamine-2-chlorpropane managed to synthesize "drug 8909". It was called Dolphin - believed to be in honor of Adolf Hitler.
Later the synthesis was changed to more simple where it was used already diphenylbutyronitrile. In 1942 it began commercial production of the drug amidon, first used for experimental purposes as a painkiller. The main feature of methadone is that, unlike morphine, methadone is also effective for oral use. In the late 40-ies was made complete clinical trials and the drug has been used in medical practice as a substitute for morphine in severe pain.
Actually it became known as methadone only since 1954. The owner of the patent for production (before its expiration) was a medical company "Ely Lilly & co.".
In the early 1960-ies Vincent Dole (Dole V.) and Mary Nisvander (M. Nyswander) was first developed methods of methadone treatment for heroin addiction.
At first, the methadone gave impressive results. By the mid-1970s, however, the number of methadone-related deaths had increased dramatically. The fact is that the widespread use of the drug in medicine provided him with an exit "on the street", and its use without the control of the doctor was much more dangerous even the heroin itself.
Experience shows that application of the methodan is not justified. Many experts in the field of drug treatment and came to the conclusion that the use of methadone leads to the replacement of one addiction with another.