Methylphenidate (methyl ester of phenyl-(a) piperidinyloxy acid hydrochloride) is a synthetic psychostimulant. Chemical formula (C14H19NO2).
Brand drugs based on Methylphenidate (ritalin, meridel, modafinil, centerin, methylphenidatum, centedrin, rilatine, methylphenidati hydrochloridum, methylphenidate hydrochloride).
The drug is used as a mild psychostimulant in asthenic conditions, fatigue, in the treatment of attention deficit syndrome, as well as depression of the nervous system. Due to side effects in many countries withdrawn from circulation of medicines.
Slang names Methylphenidate: dietary pills, smart pills, pills for vivacity, vitamin P, potassium, vitamins, children's cocaine.
By the action of methylphenidate (ritalin) is similar to amphetamine and cocaine, but has a less powerful stimulating effect and less effect on the peripheral adrenergic system.Due to the fact that it is very often used for the treatment of attention deficit syndrome in children, it is still nicknamed children's cocaine. Due to the universal availability of Methylphenidate until recently, it has not been overlooked and addicts.
Consequences of the use of Methylphenidate:
The mechanism of physiological action of methylphenidate is not fully studied. It is believed that the drug activates the cerebral cortex, by the concentration of extracellular dopamine. Thereby increases the concentration of norepinephrine, and it turns out the stimulating effect. This partly explains the antidepressant effects of methylphenidate.
When taking doses exceeding therapeutic doses, Methylphenidate causes changeable aggressive behavior, hallucinations, irritability, panic, psychosis (suicide), pupils dilated, and significant doses can lead to convulsions, death. Complications arising from the use of ritalin (methylphenidate) are caused by insoluble fillers used in tablets. With long-term use, kidneys, liver, lungs collapse, irreversible damage to blood vessels occurs as a result of strokes, the brain is destroyed, epilepsy and destruction of the retina are possible.
Regular intake of methylphenidate causes, first of all, psychological dependence. Constant use of the drug in high doses also leads to the development of tolerance and physical dependence on it. Withdrawal syndrome (abstinence) is expressed in apathy, increased sleep duration, depression and irritability.
Signs of Methylphenidate use:
When taking the drug, there are: suppressed appetite, increased concentration and attention, euphoria, nausea, insomnia, sometimes anxiety and excitement, exacerbation of psychopathological symptoms.
With an overdose of the drug, convulsions, hyperthermia, tachycardia, the occurrence of hallucinations, hyperexcitability, emotional instability, midriasis (strong dilation of the pupils), epileptic seizures and headaches are possible.
When overdosing the drug several times-intense hallucinations, comparable with hallucinations of cocaine, arterial hypertension, intracranial hemorrhage, destruction of blood vessels and brain damage. Possible death.
1944-synthesis of Methylphenidate.
In 1961, doctors from different cities in the United States noticed that methylphenidate helped children with hyperactive attention deficit disorder (HSDD), but compared to Benzedrine, it is much less likely to cause side effects.
In 1963 Ritalin (methylphenidate) predlojennyh firm "Ciba-Geigy" for the treatment of attention deficit disorder oficialno allowed to use.
From 1992 to 2000, the number of children prescribed stimulants increased tenfold and hundreds of times in different countries.
In 2002, the parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe noted the high level of legal methylphenidate consumption in Belgium, Germany, Iceland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
In 2006, the U.S. Congress held hearings on the issue of ritalin where parents of suicide children and children who lost their health spoke.
Today Methylphenidate in Russia and a number of other countries (Turkey, Oman, Nigeria, etc.) is withdrawn from the circulation of medicines, but in some countries (for example in the United States) is used to treat attention deficit and hyperactivity Disorder.
In recent years, the use of ritalin (methylphenidate) has taken on a massive scale - it began to be widely consumed by students, in the opinion of which it contributes to the concentration of attention during the pre-examination training. What can be the long - term effect of such Amateur performance-is still unknown.