What is Morphine

What is Morphine

Morphine (5A,6A) -didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diol) is one of the main alkaloids of opium. The word comes from the Greek God Morpheus, literally one who makes dreams. The outdated name is morphine. Contains the Mac snotvorna, Stephanie, sinomenium, heart-leaved moonseed. Less common in childbirth Croton, Cocculus, triclisia, ocotea. Almost only get from the dried milky juice of the opium poppy. The content of morphine in raw opium reaches 10-20%, the minimum concentration-about 3%.
I must say that the opium poppy contains only one stereoisomer, (- ) - morphine. (+)- morphine was obtained as a result of synthesis and has no pharmacological properties (- )- morphine.

The chemical formula of morphine is C17H19NO3.

In its pure form, morphine is a white crystalline powder, which acquires a yellowish or grayish hue during long-term storage. Mostly available in the form of solution for injection.

Medical appointment morphine widely enough. Derivatives of morphine, in particular, hydrochloride (for injection) and sulfate (as an oral drug) as an analgesic (analgesic, weak anesthetic, sedative) drug. Morphine is able to effectively suppress the feeling of severe physical pain and psychogenic pain. It also has sedative activity, suppresses cough reflex. Lowering the excitability of pain centers, it also has antishock effects in injuries. Used in acute myocardial infarction.
Morphine is sometimes used in x-ray practice in the study of the stomach, duodenum, gallbladder. The introduction of morphine increases the tone of the muscles of the stomach, increases its peristalsis, accelerates its evacuation and causes stretching of the duodenum with a contrast agent. This helps to identify ulcers and tumors of the stomach, duodenum ulcer. Morphine - induced muscle contraction of the sphincter of Oddi creates favorable conditions for x-ray examination of the gallbladder.

Since morphine has a narcotic effect on the human body, it is not spared and addicts. The effect of the drug begins 5-10 minutes after intravenous or intramuscular administration. Peak concentrations of morphine in blood is reached in about 20 minutes. The effect of the drug on the human body is accompanied by euphoria, a sense of warmth, drowsiness and a decrease in the level of consciousness. Depending on the dosage, the action of morphine can last from 2 to 8 hours.

Signs of use Morphine:

Strong contraction of the pupils, eyes slightly red and really shiny; dark circles under the eyes, superficial intermittent slow breathing; itchy skin (especially nose); sluggish and sleepy; confused speech; passivity and total relaxation; lethargy to everything but himself; euphoria and carelessness; excessive "courage" and determination; nervousness; dryness of the skin and mucous membranes (lips, tongue); shallow sleep; decrease in urine output; frequent constipation; colds no cough; slight decrease in body temperature. Characteristic for the action of morphine is depression of the respiratory center. Toxic doses of cause the emergence of periodic breathing and subsequent death, in a result stop breathing.

Consequences of the use of Morphine:

Morphine is a strong drug and it quickly becomes addictive, and as a consequence develops persistent physical dependence.This is due to the fact that some parts of the morphine molecules are very similar to fragments of endorphins. In normal life, endorphins are produced by the nervous system and regulate emotional and intellectual activity. Already after 2-3 weeks of regular use of the drug, people almost can not get rid of dependence on their own. Tolerance to the drug develops quickly, and a constant increase in the dose can lead to overdose and death. Abstinent syndrome occurs 10-12 hours after the last administration of morphine. Manifests itself in the form of irritability, aggression, breaking muscle inflammation, nausea and vomiting. The period of acute withdrawal syndrome is 5-14 days. In addition, morphine causes side effects associated with a decrease in motor ability of the intestine (constipation).

From the history of Morphine:

For the first time morphine was isolated by a German pharmacologist Friedrich Cartonera from opium in 1804. It F. Serturner gave him morphine named after the God of dreams in Greek mythology-Morpheus, son of Hypnos, God of sleep.

Tom de Quincy left the essay "Confessions of an opioid Englishman" (1822), which described in detail how morphine drug addiction develops. Morphine was the first alkaloid obtained in purified form. However, morphine became widespread after the invention of the injection needle in 1853. It was used to relieve pain. It was also used as a "cure" for opium and alcohol addiction. Widespread the use of morphine during American civil war, led to emergence "army disease" (morphine dependence) have more 400 thousands of people.

In 1874, diacetylmorphine, better known as heroin, was synthesized from morphine. Prior to heroin synthesis, morphine was the most common drug analgesic in the world.

In the late nineteenth century by German soldiers and officers returning from the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871 years were morphine addicts almost half of the cases. Many of the soldiers in the war were injecting morphine became in the time available and fashionable sedative. In 1879, in one of the works there was a description of the disease, called "soldier". In the time almost any disease in the American army treated opium. In 1880, at the international conference, it was announced the emergence of a new disease "drug addiction" caused by substance abuse.

In the early twentieth century, many doctors became morphinists. In the medical environment, there was a view that the doctor who understands the seriousness of morphinism, capable need to use the morphine for himself, avoiding addiction through awareness. Practice has shown that the opinion was wrong.

Full synthesis of morphine was carried out only in 1952, but its duration and complexity (originally 17 stages were included) makes its commercial implementation impractical. Currently, several different methods of synthesis are proposed, but natural morphine is still cheaper than synthetic.

In the early twentieth century many doctors became morphine addicts. In the medical environment, there was a view that the doctor who understands the seriousness of morphinism, capable need to use the morphine for himself, avoiding addiction through awareness. Practice has shown that the opinion was wrong. Mikhail Bulgakov, the author of the story "Morphine", for some time been a morphine addict, but have fully recovered from drug addiction thanks to the selfless help of his first wife. Leo Tolstoy in Anna Karenina describes how the main character got addicted to morphine after it was first applied to her to relieve pain in the second childbirth. Known was a morphine addict Hermann Goering, however, he recovered from this addiction. A lot of creative personalities rolled into the trap of morphinism. So, Edith Piaf at the end of life was forced to resort to injections even during his speeches.

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