Nicotine- (S)-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrol-dinil)pyridine, an alkaloid found in plants of the paslenovyh family (Solanaceae).The maximum amount of nicotine contained in tobacco, but there are 66 species of plants that contain nicotine. In small quantities, for example, it is present in eggplants, potatoes, tomatoes, bell peppers. Nicotine is from 0.3 to 5% by weight of tobacco in a dry form, nicotine biosynthesis occurs in the roots, accumulation of nicotine-in the leaves.
Nicotine is a colorless oily liquid (T. Kip. 247,6 Â°C), quickly darkening in the air. At temperatures below 60 Â°C and above 210 Â°C nicotine is mixed with water, and in the temperature range from 60 Â°C to 210 Â°C, it dissolves in water. The chemical formula of nicotine is C10H14N2
The name nicotine was invented in honor of Jean Nicot, Ambassador of France to the Portuguese court, who in 1560 sent a little tobacco to Queen Catherine de Medici, as a remedy for migraine. They were also treated for wounds, rheumatism, asthma and toothache.
Methods of nicotine use-Smoking tobacco, inhalation of snuff, chewing tobacco.
Nicotine is rapidly absorbed through the mucous membranes of the mouth, the food channel, as well as through the lungs. It can enter the body through intact skin. Once nicotine enters the body, it quickly spreads through the bloodstream. On average, 7 seconds after inhalation of tobacco smoke is enough for nicotine to reach the brain. The half-life of nicotine from the body is about two hours. Nicotine inhaled with tobacco smoke when Smoking is a small fraction of nicotine contained in tobacco leaves (most of the substance burns). The amount of nicotine absorbed by the body from Smoking depends on many factors, including the type of tobacco, whether the smoke is inhaled and whether the filter is used. In the case of chewing and snuff tobacco, which is placed in the mouth and chewed or inhaled through the nose, the amount of nicotine entering the body, much more than Smoking tobacco.
Consequences of the use of nicotine:
Nicotine acts on nicotine acetylcholine receptors. In low concentrations, it increases the activity of these receptors, which, among other things, leads to an increase in the amount of stimulating hormone adrenaline (epinephrine). The release of adrenaline leads to faster heartbeat, increased blood pressure and increased breathing, as well as a higher level of glucose in the blood.
Nicotine is a poisonous substance. It affects the Central and peripheral nervous system. Especially characteristic is the action of nicotine on the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system. In this regard, nicotine is among the "ganglionic poisons". After admission to the body of large doses of nicotine inhibition and paralysis of the nervous system, respiratory arrest followed by cardiac arrest. The average lethal dose for humans is 0.5 â€” 1 mg/kg.
Despite the strong toxicity, when used in small doses, such as Smoking, nicotine acts as a psychostimulant. Nicotine effects on mood vary. Causing the release of glucose from the liver and epinephrine (epinephrine) from the adrenal medulla, it causes excitement. From a subjective point of view, this is manifested by feelings of relaxation, calmness and liveliness, as well as a moderately euphoric state. In some smokers, a decrease in appetite and an increase in metabolism can result in a decrease in body weight.
Repeated use of nicotine causes physical and mental dependence. Long-term use can cause diseases and dysfunctions such as visual impairment, stomach and bowel disorders, hyperglycemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, tachycardia, arrhythmia, angina, coronary heart disease, heart failure and myocardial infarction. In combination with resins nicotine contributes to the development of lung cancer. Moreover, under the use nicotine for several tens of years can develop impotence.
Signs of nicotine use:
At the first receptions nicotine can cause nausea and vomiting. Then, in the process of adaptation, these protective effects disappear. Perhaps the easy electrified. In any case, the observed relaxation of skeletal muscles and tremor of the hands. The smoker appear: irritability, improve short term memory, reduces reaction time, improves attention, lost the feeling of anxiety, reduced appetite, comes total relaxation. However, all the positive aspects are quickly replaced by the opposite, after the concentration of nicotine in the brain drops.
Nicotine poisoning is typical:
the development of nausea and vomiting;
frequent pulse and high blood pressure at the beginning of Smoking;
weak pulse and low blood pressure 30 minutes after Smoking;
loss of vitality.
Nicotine poisoning is usually quite rare and is mostly found in children who follow adults trying to smoke an adult dose. Help with poisoning: access to fresh air, respiratory protection from vomiting, irrigation of the skin with cold water. In case of convulsions, it is necessary to ensure airway patency and prevent tongue biting before the arrival of ambulance.
Outward signs of Smoking are the tobacco smell from a mouth, hands, yellowed from the filter index and middle fingers.
From the history of nicotine:
600-1000 A.D.-Uaxactun, Guatemala. The first graphic image of a smoker. Found a clay vessel, it shows a Mayan Indian Smoking rolled tobacco leaves, stretched thread. Smoking Maya Indians called sukkar.
October 12, 1492-Christopher Columbus sails to the shores of San Salvador and sees the leaves of tobacco dried by the natives.
1530-Franciscan monk Bernardino de Sahagun distinguishes two types of tobacco: "pleasant" - Nicotiana tabacum and "rough" Nicotiana rustica.
1531-Santo Domingo. European cultivation of tobacco begins.
1556-Andre Tevet for the first time brings tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) to France from Brazil, claiming that tobacco is created for comfortable pastime.
1559-the Main component of tobacco-nicotine is named after Jean nicot De Villemain ( Jean Nicot) - French Ambassador to Portugal, who describes its medicinal properties and sends it as a panacea to the French court.
1571 - the Question about Smoking "for fun" is still not resolved, because the tobacco think, first of all, drug. Nicolas Monardes dedicates the second part of his book "New plants of the world" (new World plants) to tobacco, recommending it as an unmistakable remedy for 36 different diseases. Monardez calls tobacco "Holy grass" and his work becomes a fundamental source for all subsequent Pro-tobacco literature.
1586-Germany. "De plantis epitome utilissima "prints one of the first tobacco warnings, calling tobacco a"dangerous plant".
623-Italy. The Church prohibits Smoking in Holy places. Pope urban VIII threatens to excommunicate anyone who smokes or smells tobacco in Holy places.
1634-Russia. Tsar Alexei introduces penalties for Smoking. The first violation - flogging, tearing out of nostrils and the reference to Siberia, the second - death penalty.
1795 - Samuel Thomas van Semmering of Maine state claims that Smoking tube leads to cancer.
1828-Germany. The University of Heidelberg students Ludwig Reimann and Wilhelm Heinrich Posselt write a comprehensive dissertation on the pharmacology of nicotine, where with certainty claim that it is a "dangerous poison."
1883-Oscar Hammerstein receives a patent for a cigar machine.
1905-Tobacco is removed from the official list of drugs. This is done in exchange for votes, the tobacco lobby when voting on "Food and Drug Act" of 1906. Tobacco automatically falls under the jurisdiction of Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
1965 - the U.S. Congress approves the law on the labelling of cigarette packs with warnings of Ministry of health.
The 1980s the Beginning of a global attack on tobacco. Tobacco taxes in the US and Western Europe rose by 85% during this period.
The 1990s litigation was the top story on the tobacco industry.
2003-the world health organization framework Convention on tobacco control "World health Organization" was Adopted. In four years, 146 countries have acceded to the Convention. This document has become one of the most rapidly implemented UN treaties in the world (who is part of the UN structure).