Opium (from lat. the bringer of sleep) is a powerful psychoactive substance derived from sun-dried milky juice extracted from unripe opium poppy, notching of the head, after fall of petals. The leaking white resinous substance gradually hardens and becomes brown. That's opium. From a chemical point of view, opium is a complex mixture of organic and mineral substances (their quantitative relations vary depending on the place of origin of opium). It consists of alkaloids, proteins, carbohydrates, rubber compounds, organic acids, peptides, glucoproteins, dyes.
The composition of opium contains more than 20 alkaloids: morphine, codeine, narcotine, thebaine, papaverine, papaverine, nartsein, Neopan, protopin, porphyroxine, kryptonian, pseudomorphine, laudanin, laudanin, laudanosin, codemin, noscoping, hydrocotarnine, meconidine, lantapan, oxyacetic, contamin.
Opium has several synonyms: opium, Khanka, shirka, poppy straw, omnopon, raw opium, pantopon, extraction opium.
There are the following water opium:
opium raw-sticky, resin-like plastic mass, dark brown, with a characteristic licorice flavor. As you age, the plasticity disappears, the mass becomes hard and brittle.
Processed (extraction) opium - a product obtained from raw opium by various treatments, usually water extraction followed by filtration and evaporation of water.
Medical opium-a thin powder of light brown color with a morphine content of 9.5-10.5%. Includes additives "diluents": lactose, starch and other components. It has a characteristic smell of opium.
Pantopon (omnopon) - light brown powder easily soluble in water, contains 48-50% morphine.
Opium is the raw material for the production of opiate drugs: codeine, morphine, and heroin. It is also used as a separate product.
Consequences of the use of opium:
Persons who introduce opium for the first time may feel nausea, vomiting, dizziness, that is, the first acquaintance with the drug may be unpleasant.
Those who take opium for the first time and in their company may have a pleasant feeling: relaxation, good mood and a sense of unity. Positive effects prevailed during the first few months, and drug abusers often took opium in an effort to repeat them. This period they call "honeymoon". In fact, "honeymoon" is an introduction to mental addiction.
Later, due to the development of tolerance, to achieve the same effect, it is necessary to increase the dose. Despite the fact that the pleasurable effects diminish, and the addict is no longer able to discontinue the drug, because it is in physical dependence. He's not taking the drug for pleasure, he's trying to avoid an abstinence crisis. It is worth noting here that the treatment of opium addiction is the most difficult, and the percentage of drug addicts treated is the lowest.
The most frequent complications of chronic opium abuse are: opium fever, viral inflammation of the liver, purulent skin and tissue infections, inflammation and hardening of the veins, endocarditis.
Signs of opiate use:
Unusual drowsiness at the most inopportune time. If you leave the drunk alone, he begins to fall asleep in any position and nodding off (as they say addicts, "chopped"), periodically waking up. If you call, he immediately included in the conversation, as if not slept. In this case, he has a slow speech, he stretches the words, is included in the conversation about the topic, which has long been discussed and forgotten, several times can tell the same thing. But it can be lively, witty, easy to communicate. Very good-natured, flexible, accommodating and helpful. The impression of highly diffuse and brooding. Can forget about cigarette which burns in his hand and dropping it, or burn the hand. Seeks to retire, is better in a separate room. At the same time to turn on the TV or video to fall asleep.
Sometimes, on the contrary, seeks to be in society, even if it's not asking; Intrusive and annoying. Pupil at this time unusually narrow and does not expand in the dark, so when twilight illumination visual acuity is markedly reduced. The skin is pale, dry and warm. The pain sensitivity is reduced and it can get burned on a cigarette or a hot frying pan without feeling pain. Its hard to put to sleep "normal" вЂ“ that is to bed off the room light until late at night (sometimes up to 2-4 hours a night).
The history of opium:
The first mention of opium dates back to 3400 BC (Mesopotamia). The planks found in the Sumerian city of Nippur in Mesopotamia described the process of collecting opium juice in the mornings and making opium from it.
About 1300 ad grown in Egypt on special fields opium became a subject of trade in the Mediterranean countries.
In 1100 ad, it was also grown in Cyprus.
In China opium began to be grown, since the 8th century ad.
In the future, the region from the Eastern Mediterranean to China remained the main area of opium poppy cultivation in the world.
1513 - the First mention of the opium trade with Europeans was found in the letters of Portuguese sailors.
since 1640, the Dutch began to buy "Bengali opium" and sell it on the island of Java.
1720-the British started buying Bengali opium and selling it to China.
1773-the British Governor-General of Bengal destroyed the city of Patna syndicate and established the monopoly of the East India company on the Bengal opium trade.
Until 1820, the city of the British East India company kept selling opium to China at the level of 270 tons per year with the goal of price inflation and maintain the balance of the world trading system.
1805 - the beginning of opium exports by Americans from Turkey to China.
After 1830 the East India company finally lost its monopoly control over opium trade with China, which led to the end of the policy of containment of its sales to China.
1840-opium consumption began in the United States.
The first opium war in China took place in 1842.
1856-1858 - second opium war in China.
1913 the export of opium in Cathay had ceased.
1907-1940. Displacement of opium trade into the illegal sphere.
To date, more than 9,000 tons of opium are produced and distributed worldwide illegally.