Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is a psychedelic, phosphorylated derivative of psilocin (indole derivative of tryptamine) an alkaloid from the family of tryptamines found in Psilocybe mushrooms (Psilocybe), panaeolus (Panaeolus), stropharia (Stropharia), anellaria (Anellaria) and some others. Chemical formula of psilocin C12H17N2O4P.
Mushrooms containing psilocybin and psilocin are cosmopolitan and widely distributed in almost all continents. Mushrooms of the genus Psilocybe-saprophytes. They settle on the soil, dead branches and stems of plants, found on sawdust, many live on sphagnum bogs, peat, manure. Meet in the forest on forest humus.
In medicine, psilocybin is used as an adjunct to the treatment of certain neuroses, because it awakens the "affective memory". Memories of past events can manifest themselves so clearly that the almost forgotten past is perceived as vividly as the present. This facilitates a constructive analysis of the factors that caused neurosis.
Because of its narcotic effects psilocybin is often used by drug addicts. Psilocybin is similar in its action to LSD, but unlike LSD there is a large "naturalness" of sensations and emotionality, as well as, sometimes, the "sacredness" of the resulting experiences. The action of psilocybin lasts approximately 4-7 hours.
Consequences of the use of psilocybin:
On the part of psilocybin, there are no cases of physical dependence and absentee syndrome, but its strong hallucinogenic properties are the cause of mental dependence in persons chronically abusing the drug. This drug, endlessly used by young people, carries with it all the dangers threatening from psychedelics in General.
The minimum effective dose of psilocybin in which you can set the first changes in perception - 3-6 mg.it corresponds to 0.05 - 0.1 mg/kg for an adult weighing 60 kg. Sufficient dose for an adult - an average of about 10 mg. Lethal dose - 100 mg/kg body weight, it means 6000 - 7000 mg for an adult.
After ingestion, most of the psilocybin is converted into its active metabolite psilocin, whose activity is about 50% less. No deaths are known to have resulted from the use of fungi or synthetic psilocybin. In a number of questionable cases, death occurred due to the use of other highly toxic substances with mushrooms.
Signs of use of psilocybin:
There are several signs of use of psilocybin, depending on the phase in which the user is:
The first phase begins in ten, twenty-five minutes from the moment of introduction of a drug into an organism. In it, the patient's attention is turned inward. First appear unpleasant symptoms: osalemisest, dizzy, half-conscious and feeling of fear. Within the next thirty minutes, they are joined by sweating, impaired coordination, and confusion of thought. Active attention of the individual disturbed increased auditory and visual sensitivity. The person as though is" under attack " from all parties of a set of external irritants. Contact with the environment is weakening, as the personality gradually overflows with subjective experiences. The patient answers only a few questions and is not interested in maintaining contact with the outside world.
Second phase the person is transported into a world of unusual visions and hallucinations from very pleasant to frightening and bizarre. As in other cases of the use of psychedelics, these impressions depend primarily on the fact that man carries within himself. He seeks to keep a distance between yourself and others. All the attention is concentrated on inner feelings. His emotional reactions are completely inexplicable to an outsider.
In the third phase, the patient is extremely passive, shows no initiative or interest. He's emotionally amorphous. Time and space have no meaning for him. Dominate various unreal sensations. Some authors describe the state of out of body in this phase. The impression that the soul has left the body and was watching him from the side.
After the expiration of mushroom about for several days can stay after-effect, sometimes called "the afterglow", expressed in a General state of peace and a small increase in perception.
From the history of psilocybin:
The history of hallucinogenic mushrooms goes back many millennia. When a person first tried these mushrooms is not known to anyone. Western civilization first encountered them during the colonization of America. The discovery of Columbus brought Europeans not only new lands and new riches, but also introduced them to the alien and mysterious Indian culture, thousands of years developing in isolation.
We will not go into such a jungle, and start the history of psilocybin since its chemical synthesis.
1958-Psilocybin was first isolated by albert Hofmann.
1960-1961 â€“ Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert begin a series of experiments with Harvard graduate students, using pure psilocybin.
1960s â€“ the pill (the pill) psilocybine that produces them well-known laboratory Sandoz.
1960s â€“ Hofmann gives synthetic psilocybin to Maria Sabina. April 1962 â€“ 20 students at Boston University participate in "psilocybin" experiment.
October 24, 1968-Possession of psilocybin and psilocin becomes illegal.
1970-a well-known law on drug control "law on the Regulation and Control of drug Abuse 1970" (U.S. Drug Abuse Regulation and Control Act of 1970) (List I, II). It "places" most of the known hallucinogens (LSD, psilocybin, psilocin, mescaline, peyote, hashish, and MDA) in List I. Cocaine Bush, cocaine and intravenous methamphetamine in List II. Other amphetamines and stimulants, including non-intravenous methamphetamine in Schedule III.
1960-1977 â€“ Psilocybin is being studied as a drug for psychotherapeutic purposes throughout the 1960s and 1970s. All studies are planned up to 1990 was completed in 1977.
5 June, 2002 Japan. Mushrooms become illegal, they can not be sold in Japan. They are not allowed to drink, but the well-known Japanese pre-stores allowed to sell all the mushrooms.