Tramadol (TRANS - (Â±)-2-[(Dimethylamino)methyl]-1-(3 â€” methoxyphenyl) cyclohexanol (as hydrochloride) - opioid synthetic analgesic, belongs to the group of partial agonists of opioid receptors. Activates opioid receptors (mu-, Delta-, Kappa-) on pre - and postsynaptic membranes of afferent fibers of the nociceptive system in the brain and gastrointestinal tract. It has a strong analgesic activity, gives a quick and lasting effect. Analgesic effect develops after 15-30 minutes after ingestion and lasts up to 6 hours. Chemical formula C16H25NO2.
Tramadol has a number of synonyms: Mabron, Planada, Protrade, Sintradon, Tramal, Cramolin, Tramundal retard, Tramalgin, Tram.
Tramadol is available in the form of ampoules for injections, tablets and capsules. The preparation is a white crystalline powder, odorless, bitter taste, soluble in water and ethanol.
Tramadol is 10 times weaker than codeine, and 6000 times weaker than morphine at the same dosage, while the severity of analgesic action is only 5-10 times weaker than morphine.
As a rule, this substance is used in medicine â€“ without it can not do with unbearable physical pain. However, Tramadol has long ceased to be just a drug. Increasingly, it is used as a drug. Tramadol, as a narcotic substance, is among the strongest and most dangerous drugs.
Since tramadol is a drug of the opiate (opium) group, It causes dependence like other opiates (heroin). Discontinuation of Tramadol has severe withdrawal, withdrawal. Getting used to the drug develops extremely quickly, so you have to constantly increase the dose. Because of the availability to Tramadol addicted teenagers and often it is the first drug dependent person. Often it is used because of the inability to get heroin. Often they are trying to take the edge off.
External signs of Tramadol intake:
The first reception leads to euphoria, which is replaced by nightmares and fear of loneliness. On to euphoria mixed with hallucinations, and then lost appetite, sometimes completely, but very thirsty. Then the drug addict becomes less active, sometimes crying and often irritable. Drugged euphoria is replaced by just a cheerful mood, but the effect passes quickly. Also observed: increased sweating, increased urination, dizziness, headache, weakness, fatigue, congestion, paradoxical stimulation of the Central nervous system (nervousness, agitation, anxiety, tremor, muscle spasms, euphoria, emotional lability, hallucinations), drowsiness, sleep disorders, confusion, movement coordination disorders, convulsions of the Central Genesis (with intravenous administration at the same time or at the same time antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics), depression, amnesia, cognitive dysfunction, paresthesia, instability gait, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea, difficulty swallowing. In case of overdose there are myosis, vomiting, collapse, coma, convulsions, depression of the respiratory center, apnea.
Consequences of the use of Tramadol:
The use of Tramadol causes mental and physical dependence. Overdose it is deadly. Long-term use of this drug causes damage to internal organs, especially the liver. In adolescents who use Tramadol, in the future there may be problems with sexual function (the products of its disintegration accumulate in the testicles of men). From the use of Tramadol suffers greatly intelligence and emotional sphere: even after the cessation of the use of confusion persists for a long time. Tramadol can cause seizures, similar to epileptic seizures, which are manifested by loss of consciousness, convulsions, secretions of foam from the mouth. During this attack, it is very important to quickly open the mouth of the victim (you can use a spoon) and fix the tongue. If this is not done, death by suffocation may occur.
From the history of Tramadol:
Invented in 1962 by an employee of the German pharmaceutical company "GRÃœNENTHAL GmbH" ("grÃ¼nenthal") Dr. Kurt Flick. Dr. Kurt flick, synthesized a molecule of tramadol, the drug, its appearance marked the beginning of the creation of opioid narcotic analgesics.
from 1962 to the present time - from an overdose of a preparation, all over the world about 375 million people were lost, in total. Thus, on average, every 4 seconds, 1 person dies from an overdose of Tramadol in the world. Currently, the number of drug addicts from Tramadol, in the world, is about 125 million people, which is about a third of the total number of drug addicts in the world.
Some reference books classify Tramadol as a "narcotic analgesic", others as "opioid non â€” narcotic analgesic". In some countries Tramadol is included in the list of narcotic drugs.