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DEPENDENCES

Drugs and pregnancy

Drugs and pregnancy

Many females want to become mothers and give birth to healthy babies, and such desire is quite clear and natural. But when the woman takes drugs, it could become a serious obstacle. It’s hard to say definitely, how the drug would affect a new-born child in future. But this will be for sure a negative influence, dangerous to his life.

The whole book will be not enough to describe all the possible consequences of drug abuse during the pregnancy. Any of the existing deviations in fetus development can result from taking drugs by the mother. Even if the baby is born healthy, there are certain problems with intellectual and physical growth and development appear, 4769as he grows up.

Let us take a look at the influence of particular kinds of psychoactive substances.

The influence of cocaine

By 8 percent of prospective mothers, who take narcotics, the pregnancy ends by stillbirth due to detachment of placenta. The way of life of cocaine addicts in 25 percent of cases leads to premature birth (premature children) and slowdown the process of delivery. Besides, the usage of cocaine may cause convulsions, arrhythmia, epilepsy and other conditions, fraught with fetus trauma or death. Cocaine is the most dangerous narcotic for pregnant, especially in its pure form. More often, than the other drugs, it brings to stillbirth.

Aftereffects of drug usage on fetus: Tachycardia. Fetal growth retardation. Fetal brain and body growth retardation. Newborn may suffer from infarction or cerebral circulation disorder due to high blood pressure and angiospasm (the risk is growing, if pregnant woman takes the drug for 48-72 hours before the childbirth). Cocaine influences on nerve receptors and may cause behavior disorders, high irritability, speech delay and power of apprehension disorder. Cocaine gets into the child’s organism with the mother’s milk. The baby becomes anxious, sleeps bad, in some cases epileptic bouts appear.

The influence of opiates

Complications in the period of pregnancy are connected with taking narcotics as well as with abrupt and complete withdrawal from the use of drugs. The way of life of opiate addicts often comes to preterm delivery (premature children), slowdown the process of delivery of each second child, stillbirth and abortion (due to abrupt and complete withdrawal from the use).

Aftereffects of drug usage on fetus: Fetal growth disorder. High or low (depending on the dose) irritability of fetus. High risk of malposition (pelvic presentation).

Disturbances revealing in the period of infancy: Low body weight. Microcephaly. High risk of sudden death. High incidence of disease and mortality (opiates suppress systems, responsible for body resistance).

Disturbances, revealing in the elder age: Mental retardation, speech and motion delay to 18 months. Attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity. Sleep disorder. Anger and irritability. Bad speech habits. Tactile, visual and auditory perception is below normal.

Neonatal withdrawal syndrome: It appears depending on the level of drug usage and the child’s physical features. About three from four newborn suffer from the same abstinence symptoms, as adults: shivering, rhinitis, high excitation, sleeplessness, tachypnea, crying. The newborn may receive opiates from his mother’s milk by breast feeding.

The influence of cocaine

By 8 percent of prospective mothers, who take narcotics, the pregnancy ends by stillbirth due to detachment of placenta. The way of life of cocaine addicts in 25 percent of cases leads to premature birth (premature children) and slowdown the process of delivery. Besides, the usage of cocaine may cause convulsions, arrhythmia, epilepsy and other conditions, fraught with fetus trauma or death. Cocaine is the most dangerous narcotic for pregnant, especially in its pure form. More often, than the other drugs, it brings to stillbirth.

Aftereffects of drug usage on fetus: Tachycardia. Fetal growth retardation. Fetal brain and body growth retardation. Newborn may suffer from infarction or cerebral circulation disorder due to high blood pressure and angiospasm (the risk is growing, if pregnant woman takes the drug for 48-72 hours before the childbirth). Cocaine influences on nerve receptors and may cause behavior disorders, high irritability, speech delay and power of apprehension disorder. Cocaine gets into the child’s organism with the mother’s milk. The baby becomes anxious, sleeps bad, in some cases epileptic bouts appear.

The influence of opiates

Complications in the period of pregnancy are connected with taking narcotics as well as with abrupt and complete withdrawal from the use of drugs. The way of life of opiate addicts often comes to preterm delivery (premature children), slowdown the process of delivery of each second child, stillbirth and abortion (due to abrupt and complete withdrawal from the use).

Aftereffects of drug usage on fetus: Fetal growth disorder. High or low (depending on the dose) irritability of fetus. High risk of malposition (pelvic presentation).

Disturbances revealing in the period of infancy: Low body weight. Microcephaly. High risk of sudden death. High incidence of disease and mortality (opiates suppress systems, responsible for body resistance).

Disturbances, revealing in the elder age: Mental retardation, speech and motion delay to 18 months. Attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity. Sleep disorder. Anger and irritability. Bad speech habits. Tactile, visual and auditory perception is below normal.

Neonatal withdrawal syndrome: It appears depending on the level of drug usage and the child’s physical features. About three from four newborn suffer from the same abstinence symptoms, as adults: shivering, rhinitis, high excitation, sleeplessness, tachypnea, crying. The newborn may receive opiates from his mother’s milk by breast feeding.

The influence of psychostimulants

In our days the influence of psychostimulants on pregnant women and yet unborn infants is studied insufficiently. One of the investigations proved high risk of congenital heart disease, and clubfoot by girls. The consequences of taking ecstasy are the same, as the consequences of other amphetamines.

Methamphetamine increases threefold the risk of fetal growth retardation. Even born by the term labor, the baby, whose mother took methamphetamine, will be less in weight by 2 kilogram; his head circumference will be also smaller, than it should normally be. Taking methamphetamine during the pregnancy increases the risk of complications, for example, it may cause premature birth and the problems with placenta.

Aftereffects of drug usage on fetus: There are registered cases of infants born with congenital defects – heart diseases, cleft lip and palate, although the scientists haven’t determined yet, what was the reason of these defects. The newborn, affected by amphetamines, may suffer from abstinence symptoms – tremble, weakness and problems with breathing.

The influence of benzodiazepines

Aftereffects of drug usage on fetus: Newborn may suffer from respiratory impairment. In the elder age the consequences may appear in the form of inadequate stress reaction.

Abstinence syndrome by newborn: if the mother used drugs every day, the newborn may suffer from abstinence – excitation, sleep and feeding disorders, epileptic bouts take place. Such effects may appear for quite a long time – from 2 weeks to 8 months.


The influence of marijuana and hashish

Complications of pregnancy: More long-lasting delivery.

Aftereffects of drug usage on fetus: Fetal growth retardation. It can decrease reproductive performance of the boys in the future. Disorders of nervous system and eye vision may appear. The newborn can receive narcotic with the mother’s milk.


The influence of hallucinogens

Here belong mushrooms of Genus Psilotsibum, LSD, PCP or phencyclidine, Cyclodol, Dimedrol, Taren.

Complications of pregnancy: High risk of abortion.

Aftereffects of drug usage on fetus: Microcephaly. Disorder of attention. Sudden bouts of excitation, instability of mood. Restriction of joint movement. Neurological disorders (hyporeflexia).




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