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What is the wine?

What is the wine?

The wine is an alcohol drink produced by the full or part spirit fermentation of grapes or other fruit juice sometimes with spirit or other ingredients (sugar, yeast, fragrances etc). The strength of natural wine is 9-16 %, the strength of stiff wine is 16-22 % vol. The specific group is the wines with the carbon dioxide (for example, champagne), sparkling or carbonated (for example, cider). The humanity creates many kinds of this drink for the many centuries of its production. Let's see in short the qualification of wine kinds.

The wines are divided into two basic kinds: the first kind has the carbon dioxide (sparkling), the second kind hasn't the carbon dioxide (calm).

The calm wines are divided into table (jug), stiff and fragranced.

The table wines are produced without spirit's addition and have only the spirit that was made as the result of natural fermentation. It makes 9-14 % vol. The table wines by the sugar's content are divided into dry - not more than 0,3 % vol. with the remained sugar until 1 %; semidry - 1-2,5 % vol.; semisweet - 3-8 % vol.

The stiff wines can have the rectified spirit. They can be strong (the spirit concentration is from 17 % to 22 % vol. including the spirit of natural fermentation that is not less than 3 % vol.; the sugar's content is from 1,0 % to 14 % vol.; and desert (the spirit concentration is from 12 % to 17 % vol. including the spirit of natural fermentation that is not less than 1,2 % vol.).

The desert wines by the sugar's content are divided into semisweet (the sugar 's content is from 5 % to 12 %, spirit's content is from 14 % to 16 % vol.), sweet (the sugar 's content is from 14 % to 20 %, spirit's content is from 12 % to 17 % vol.) and liqueur (the sugar 's content is from 21 % to 35%, spirit's content is from 12 % to 17 % vol.).

The fragranced wines are produced with using of the rectified spirit, cane sugar and also infusion of particular parts of different plants by special receipt. The spirit's content is from 16 % to 18 % vol., the sugar's content is from 6 % to 16 %. The fragranced wines were produced in Ancient Greece and Rome, they were considered to be curative. Our days, the vermouths are produced in many countries.

The wines that have the carbon dioxide are divided into the following groups:

A) The wines that are filled by the carbon dioxide by the natural way such as the fermentation in the vacuum sealed tubes under the pressure. They include the champagne wines produced by the special technology by the post fermentation of the worked wine materials that were received from special white and red kinds of grapes. The champagne produced by post fermentation in bottles and cured in them not less than three years is called "vintage".

B) The bubbly wines that are produced by post fermentation from dry or stiff wine materials in the vacuum sealed tubes by the technology established for every mark of wine.

C) Natural semisweet sparkling wines are produced by fermentation of grapes juice in the vacuum sealed tubes under pressure with the stopping of fermentation on the particular phase.

D) The sparking or carbonated wines are filed up by people of carbon dioxide by the way of so called "saturation". The wine can be prepared from one kind of grapes (fine wines) or several kinds of grapes and in this case it's called "cut wine".

Depending on the fermentation's product the wines are divided into:

  • vinicultural (made from the pure grape juice);
  • fruit (made from the juices of apples, pears etc);
  • berry (made from the juices of forest and garden's berries, and also drupaceous fruits such as cherries, plums, apricots, peaches etc);
  • plant (made from the juices of watermelons, melons, garden plants, flower petals, trees' juices);
  • raisin (made from air cured or dry grapes).

Nowadays almost every celebration is held with the glass of champagne or wine. But only a few persons think about what they drink.

We should remember that the basic ingredient of all alcohol drinks, including wine is ethanol. Depending on the quantity, concentration, way of body's penetration and action duration it can have the narcotic or toxic influence. Under the narcotic influence we determinate its ability to be the reason of coma, catatonia, insensibility to pain, central nervous system depression, alcoholic stimulation, addiction. The ethanol's influence to body is not only toxic. There are many and different biochemical and functional changes that are called by ethyl alcohol.

Many kinds (if not all) of wines have sulfites such as sulfur dioxide that are used for unnecessary fermentation. The using in wine of sulfur dioxide (sulfur dioxide, sulfyril, sulphurous oxide, E-220 is the colorless gas with acrid odor, its chemical formula is SO2) is considered by producer's statements to be harmless. However in fact this ingredient is dangerous for life. Even all bacteria dye in wine under its influence. SO2 is toxic for human. People after using even small doses of such wine claim to headache, nausea, gastrointestinal upset or stomach heaviness. Simply said, the sulfur dioxide is the main reason of hangover symptoms next day after wine drinking. The important thing is the gastric acidy because people with normal gastric acidy endure this chemical better that those who have abnormal gastric acidy (low or high). The sulfur dioxide can be the reason of fatal allergic reaction of asthmatics, it breaks the vitamin B1 (thiamine) and vitamin H (biotin). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommend to use not more than 0,7 mg of sulfur dioxide per 1 kilo of human for a day. It's the third part of red wine's bottle or quarter of white wine's bottle (by standards of EC).

Also we should say that dry red wines are full of antioxidants. The sulfur dioxide is added in them in small quantity on the phase of bottling. The white and pink wines have less quantity of antioxidants and they are in need of more quantity of sulfites. The biggest quantity of sulfites are in sweet kinds of wine because the sugar ties SO2 and that's why they need more sulfites.

What about carbonated wines (champagne, sparkling wines) so they are more harmful for human health then calm wines. The champagne actively absorb into blood and intoxicate and destroy the brain cells more and faster. The bubbles of carbon dioxide in sparkling wines call the increasing of gastric acidy and after all it's the reason of gastritis. The champagne leads to alcoholism. It has the ideal taste and often it's used be women and children and it demonstrate its devilry and fatality. So called, the way to alcoholic hell begins from small doses.

The mass media and people often say that the wine is useful. The coalition of Alcoholic Politics, that has The Australian Fund of Narcotic Matters in its body, and also The Fund of Heart Diseases and The Cancer Board of Victoria district is reported the official report. The authors said that alcohol is noticeable factor of diseases of heart, cancer and diabetes. The Australian scientists study all scientific proves and made the conclusion that any positive effect from alcohol in heart diseases' prophylaxis is exaggerated. The leader of the Heart Board of Victoria district Katy Bell added that the wine red doesn't have any specific protecting value.




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