Dependences: the selection of articles exploring various dependences
In clinical psychology and psychiatry addictive behavior appears as a variant of abnormality, accompanied by the following characteristics: insuperable subordination to another's interests; excessive attention to certain kinds of activities or subjects; low ability to chose and control own behavior; increased tolerance; loss of alternative interests; neglect of complications and harmful consequences; abstinence syndrome. The addictive behavior includes:
Chemical dependence or dependence on psychoactive substances (alcohol and narcotics, anxiolytics and sleeping medicine, psychostimulants and hallucinogens, tobacco and inhalants);
Dependence on food intake (anorexia and bulimia);
Sexual deviation and perversion (paraphilia);
Non-chemical dependences caused by psychostimulants (extreme sporting activities, gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, serial murders);
Vicarious dependences, filling the psychological emptiness (hoarding, workaholism, worldly avocations, co-dependence, addiction to reading, fanaticism as dependence on some reference group or leader);
Electronic forms and versions of dependences (movie and TV addiction, computer games, excessive use of computer and the Internet).
Codependency is a pathological condition, characterized by deep preoccupation and strong emotional, social and even physical dependence on another person.
A lot of people drink alcohol, when the situation demands, for instance on high days and holidays or on the meeting of old friends. Usually the man is in direct control of himself, and even if he takes a glass too much, he will be all right again and wonâ€™t drink much again.
Drug dependence is an insuperable craving for use of various psychoactive substances and adaptation of the body to them - thus, that without these substances it comes to metabolic imbalance of the body. Narcomania deals equally with psychical and physical spheres of a human.
Nicotine dependence manifests itself by physical dependence on the main substance of tobacco products â€“ nicotine and by psychological dependence on smoking. The habit of smoking is not just a bad habit although, but a real disease, which is unfortunately very widespread.
Computer dependency and addiction to computer games belong here. The man, who suffers from this sort of pathological addiction, spends a lot of time at his PC surfing the net or playing computer games.
Gambling addiction or ludomania (â€śludusâ€ť â€“ a game, L.) â€“ is a pathological addiction to gambling, belonging to mental disorder. According to International System of Disease Coding, ludomania has the code F63.0.
The Internet became the integral part of many peopleâ€™s lives. And all that thanks to accessibility and lots of advantages it provides, such as easy-to-get information of any kind, communication, shopping â€“ and all that â€“ without leaving your home. But there is another side of such conveniences and comprehensive facilities. The problem concerns Internet addiction, which is considered a psychical and behavioral disorder, hough it is not officially recognized as dependence yet.
For a human food is not only a means for satisfying hunger and maintaining the power, but also the pleasure and a communication tool. Collective eating at home or in a restaurant had a good reason â€“ it draws people together and creates the warm and comfort atmosphere of communication. But for some people food becomes a real narcotic, the source of bright emotions and joy, so that they feel great inconvenience without it and suffer from fixed ideas about favorite dishes.
Among various psychological dependences narcissism, or attraction to personal appearance, holds a specific place. Self-admiration, inflated self-concept and believe in perfect appearance of self are not just mental disability, but also a personal characteristic, which is extremely hard to get rid of. Of course, the desire to look nice and find an ideal image of self with the help of suitable hairstyle and the clothes â€“ is not narcissism, but normal behavior.
Shopaholism â€“ is one of the problems of the modern society, spread in the last ten years. Many people enjoy shopping, but when shopping becomes a fixed idea, overshadowing the other interests, we can talk about psychical dependence. Shopaholism manifests itself by irresistible craving for purchasing more and more goods and as often as possible. Impossibility to buy makes the person feel discomfort and apathy.
A totally devoted to his work individual is usually very respected by people around; he looks like a very busy and successful person. But there is a border between loving job and being addicted to it. The last one leads to workaholism - the entire absorption by working activity, which excludes other interests.
A pathological liar doesnâ€™t understand that telling untruth is not good. There are people, who constantly tell lies, and they need to behave this way. But we shouldnâ€™t confuse pathological lying or pseudologia (from Greek pseudos â€“ lie, and logos â€“ word, science) with lying for the sake of profit, flattery or other mercenary motives.
Hypochondria is a psychosomatic disorder, characterized by obtrusive attention to own health and revealing various imaginary symptoms of different diseases. The person, who suffers from hypochondriacal neurosis, always complains of not feeling quite well, worries about his health without objective reasons.
What can be more beautiful than love? This feeling enables you to experience a range of strong and bright emotions and brings you elation. However, sometimes true love is mistaken for love addiction, and these states are drastically opposite though they seem similar at first sight.
Somebody will say, this addiction is a usual thing, nothing special at all. We all have got a bunch of dependences: on computers, cell phones, cars and other conveniences of our civilization. But they are not drugs. The thing is that TV addiction (like any other addiction) makes a person its slave, unnoticeably causing lots of problems with his health - both physical and mental.
Wide spread of cellular phones and their availability resulted in more and more dependency on mobile gadgets among people. Walking through the street you can't help but meet people with mobile phones in their hands, but of course not all of them are cellphone addicts.
Tendency to do things in a good and right way, be successful at work, look perfect and be the best in everything is accepted by the society as a good personal characteristic. But sometimes such positive desire turns into fixed idea and leads to perfectionism. This beautiful and accurate definition is of English origin and comes from the word â€śperfectionâ€ť, which explains the meaning of this term quite clear.
Kleptomania is not a commonplace theft and lack of discipline, but a serious mental disorder, characterized by strong amotivational urge to steal. The person obsessed by this addiction, commits a theft not because of financial gain or benefits, but because he just enjoys the process and accomplished fact of stealing.
Greediness or acquisitiveness â€“ is a pathological urge to purchasing different things and attachment to these things. A greedy man is very dependent on material goods and even objects, he doesnâ€™t need very much.
In the broad sense of the word fanaticism is the extreme devotion or worship to something or somebody, as well as emphatic rejection of other beliefs and values. In religious concept fanaticism appears as absolute infatuation for religious activity with forming the cult of it, worship and unconscious coming after the group of associates.