Narcotic plants

Narcotic plants

Betel palm (Areca catechu L.) is a species of treelike plants in the genus Areca, family Palmaceae. Sometimes betel palm is called areca palm or simply areca, what is not quite true, because Areca catechu is one of near 50 species of genus Areca. The betel palm is cultivated for its seeds, which together with lime get wrapped in betel leaves, used by natives for chewing (the mixture is called “moma”). The seeds contain alkaloid arecoline, having a light narcotic effect. It increases salivation and additionally arouses nervous system.

Hawaiian baby woodrose (Argyreia nervosa L.) is a perennial climbing vine, known also as Elephant Creeper and Woolly Morning Glory. It has wooden seeds, looking like little, made of wood roses. Pods of Hawaiian baby woodrose contain such substances as ergine, isoergine, ergometrine, lysergol, hanoclavine. All these substances are alkaloids of lysergic acid (LSD) and generally called LSA - d-lysergic acid amides. Being not so much active, as LSD, they can be still treated as its predecessors.

Yellow hornpoppy or yellow horned poppy (Glaucium flavum L.) is a biennial herbaceous plant of the genus Glaucium, family Papaveraceae. The herb contains isoquinoline alkaloids of apomorphine group, the main of which is glaucin. The amount of alkaloids in Glaucium flavum is 3-4 percent, depending on the vegetative stage; the amount of glaucin – 1,5-2 percent. Besides glaucin, there are urotensin, corydine, isocorydine, chelidonine, chelirubin, sanguinarine and chelerythrine found in the plant.

Blue lotos or blue water lily (Nymphaea caerulea L.) is a water plant in the genus Nymphaea, family Nymphaeaceae. The psychoactive substances of blue lotos are alkaloids aporphine, apomorphine, nuciferin; bioflavonoids and phytosterols, complex essential oils. According to Regulation of the Government of the Russian Federation from December, 31, 2009, the flowers and leaves of blue lotos are included into the Enumeration of narcotic drugs, List I.

Jimson weed (Datura L.) is an annual with unpleasant smell, reaching up to 50 cm in height. The species belongs to the genus Datura, family Solanaceae. It is a large herbaceous, rarely arborescent plant. The seeds represent a thorned many-seeded capsule, the size of walnut. The plant contains alkaloids, mostly hyoscyamine, atropine and scopolamine; essential oil, carotene, tanning agents.

Calea zacatechichi or Hoja de dios (“leaves of God” in Spanish) is a very brachiferous bush of the family Aster, 1-1,5 meters in height; the wild plant grows in the area from Southern Mexico to Northern Costa-Rica. The plant contains a complex of bitter stuff (sesquiterpenes), flavonoids and not yet distinguished alkaloid, responsible for psychoactive properties of the plant.

Cath (Catha L.) is a monotypic genus of evergreen shrubs from the family Euonymus, which reminds the tea bush. The plant contains substances with stimulating and narcotic effect, therefore it became very widespread. After drying, the active substance of the plant called cathion - gets evaporated, while cathin, possessing the milder effect, remains.

Coca bush, or Coca (Erythroxylum coca L., from Quechuan kuka) is a species of shrubs of the genus Erythroxylum, family Erythroxylaceae. In the last century coca became very popular as a raw material for preparing cocaine – a narcotic drug, belonging to psychostimulants.

Hemp (Cannabis L.) is a genus of bast-fiber annuals of the family Cannabaceae. Cannabis contains psychoactive substances, cannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabidinol (THC); it is used as raw material for popular psychotropic substances (hashish, marijuana etc).According to the modern classification, genus Cannabis includes one species with two subspecies: Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa — Common hemp, Cannabis sativa subsp. indica — Indian hemp. There was a third species earlier, called Ruderal hemp, but now it doesn’t have an independent rank and considered to be a synonym of Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa.

Lophophora williamsii is a North American cactus of the genus Lophophora. The native name of the plant and the drink made of it is called Peyote. There are several, similar to mushroom, buds on the top of the cactus. These buds contain mescaline. These are the buds, which drug users eat, although some addicts eat also the roots and the whole plant.

Mandrake (Mandragora L.) is a species of perennial herbs of the family Solanaceae. The roots of this genus sometimes remind a human body, as the roots of ginseng do. That is why in ancient times mandragora was accredited with magic power. Roots, fruit and seeds of mandragora contain alkaloids: atropine, hyoscyamine, mandragorine, scopolamine. Close relatives of mandrake, possessing the similar psychoactive effect, are henbane (Hyoscyamus) and belladonna (Atropa belladonna).

Poppy (Papaver L.) is a genus of herbal plants in the family Papaveraceae. They are annual, biennial or perennial herbs, usually with developed stem, seldom stemless. The plants extract milky sap, white, yellow or orange. The milky sap of poppies is called opium, in Greek it means “papaverous juice”. Opium is used as independent narcotic, as well as for preparing narcotics of opium group (heroine, methadone, morphine etc).

Mimosa tenuiflora (Mimosa L.) — a genus of flowering plants, belonging to the family Mimosaceae; herbs, shrubs or middle sized trees with bipinnate leaves, known also as jurema, mimosa hostilis. Mimosa contains psychoactive compounds. The research has revealed the main psychotropic substances of mimosa: DMT (dimethyltryptamine), 5-MeO-DMT and beta-carbolines. The plant is used for preparing traditional psychoactive mixture of Indians of South America.

Nutmeg, wild nutmeg or nytmed tree (Myristica L.) is a genus of evergreen dioecious trees of the family Myristicaceae. Nutmeg contains methylene dioxide substituted compounds: myristicine, elemicin, safrole. The substances, containing in nutmeg, make a psychedelic effect. Myristicine is considered a precursor MDMA; elemicin and safrole are precursors of TMA and MDA.

Fly agaric (Amanita L.) is a genus of mycorrhizal lamellar fungi of the family Amanitaceae. In some systems this genus is related to the family Pluteaceae. The majority of fly agarics are inedible or very poisonous, some of them contain deadly poison (deadly amanita, amanita virosa), which are sometimes mistakenly taken for edible mushrooms. The well-known fly amanita (Amanita muscaria) has both the average toxic and hallucinogenic effects. The most active hallucinogenic substance of amanita is muscimol. Muscimol is a powerful selective antagonist of GABA-receptor. Also amanita muscaria contains choline, alkaloid muscarine and musciline.

Ipomoea Heavenly blue (Ipomoea violacea L.) is a plant of genus Ipomoea, family Convolvulaceae. It is also known under the name of Morning Glory and Morning Sunshine. Within the species there are 4 varieties, possessing psychoactive properties, exist: Heavenly Blue, Pearly Gates, Flying Saucers and Blue Star. The other varieties may also contain psychoactive substances, although in lower quantity. The seeds of these varieties of Ipomoea contain psychoactive substances, they are traditionally used by native people of America in magic rituals. The active substance of Ipomoea is ergin (amide of lysergic acid), related to LSD. Besides, the plant contains insignificant quantity of ergometrine and a-hydroxyethylamide of lysergic acid.

Tobacco (Nicotiana L.) is a genus of the family Solanaceae. There are 40 species known in the world. The genus subdivides into 3 subgenera: Common tobacco (Tabacum), Rustic tobacco (Rustica) and Petunious tobacco (Petunioides). The plant contains alkaloid nicotine.

Kava pepper, kava or kava-kava (Piper methysticum L.) is a plant in the family Piperaceae. It contains kavalactones (kavapyrones, 5-12 percent), the main components of which are kavain, dihydrokavain, methysticin, dihydromethysticin, yangonin, desmethoxyyangonin. The plant also contains chalcones, including flavokavain A and B. Extraction of kava roots is traditionally used as sedatives; oily extract is a hallucinogen. The word “kava” names both the plant and the drink, received from its roots. Kava has a sedative effect: people take it for relaxation, provided with mental alertness.

Psilocybe is a genus of fungi in the family Strophariaceae. The most wide-spread species are Psilocybe cubensis, Psilocybe semilanceata, Psilocybe cyanescens, Psilocybe azurescens and Psilocybe mexicana. Psilocybe contains psychedelic psilocybin.

Salvia divinorum, or Diviner’s Sage is a species of plants of the genus Salvia. The leaves of Salvia are a raw material for psychoactive dissociative hallucinogens - salvinorin-A and salvinorin-B. Besides A and B components, Salvia divinorum contains another fractions of these terpenes (С, D, E and so on); their concentration is low, and effects are not carefully studied.

San-Pedro cactus (Echinopsis pachanoi, syn. Trichocereus pachanoi L.) is a South American fast-growing columnar cactus of the genus Echinopsis. It is one of the most fast-growing columnar cactuses. Like peyote, it contains mescaline.

Ergot or spur (Claviceps L.) is a genus of ascomycete of the family Clavicipitaceae, parasitized on some cereals, including rye and wheat. Albert Hoffmann received LSD chemically, from derivatives of lysergic acid, containing in Claviceps.

Heimia salicifolia or Sinicuichi is a shrub with numerous small dark-green leaves and usually with many tiny bright-yellow flowers. American Indians call this plant Sinicuichi and use it in their rituals. The plant is known by its hallucinogenic effect. Heimia salicifolia contains the following alkaloids: 9-beta-hydroxivertine, lythrine, dehydrodecadine, lythridine, vetine, heimidine, lyfoline, epilyfoline.

Ephedra is a genus of shrubs in the phylum Gnetophyta, the only genus in the family Ephedraceae. The plant contains toxic alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine (about 2 percent). Besides, the herb contains tanning agents, pyrocatechin and other substances. The plant is poisonous.

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