Dependences: the selection of articles exploring various dependences


In clinical psychology and psychiatry addictive behavior appears as a variant of abnormality, accompanied by the following characteristics: insuperable subordination to another's interests; excessive attention to certain kinds of activities or subjects; low ability to chose and control own behavior; increased tolerance; loss of alternative interests; neglect of complications and harmful consequences; abstinence syndrome. The addictive behavior includes:

  1. Chemical dependence or dependence on psychoactive substances (alcohol and narcotics, anxiolytics and sleeping medicine, psychostimulants and hallucinogens, tobacco and inhalants);
  2. Dependence on food intake (anorexia and bulimia);
  3. Sexual deviation and perversion (paraphilia);
  4. Non-chemical dependences caused by psychostimulants (extreme sporting activities, gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, serial murders);
  5. Vicarious dependences, filling the psychological emptiness (hoarding, workaholism, worldly avocations, co-dependence, addiction to reading, fanaticism as dependence on some reference group or leader);
  6. Electronic forms and versions of dependences (movie and TV addiction, computer games, excessive use of computer and the Internet).

Addictions can be physical and emotional. Physical dependence occurs after the use of a psychoactive substance. Such substances, including nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, caffeine and some drugs.

Emotional dependence is caused by gambling behavior, irresistible attraction and impulsive unconditional fulfillment. There is pleasure and relief in satisfying these needs.

However, most addictions are not physically addictive. Any addiction has a powerful psychological boost, and this explains why people often switch from one drug to another that has a completely different effect, or even to an action that is not related to substance use. The main thing in addiction is not the substance itself, but the need to take measures when feeling stressed. Therefore, when working with any kind of dependence, it is necessary to start with the study of the psychological aspect.

There are five stages of dependence:

1. Man has learned the way in which he can change his mental state;

2. He starts using it in difficult moments;

3. This new state becomes an undeniable part of his personality;

4. This new part of the personality begins to significantly affect a person's life;

5. There is a destruction of the psyche and physiological processes in the body.

How is psychological dependence visually formed?

Alcohol, drugs, nicotine, super-sweet / fatty foods, or strong emotion affect a person.

The brain is overexcited and begins to produce neurotransmitters over the norm (in the normal state, they are simply responsible for a calm, even mood).

When there are more neurotransmitters than necessary, special antennae, receptors, begin to grow on the neurons of the brain. They grow to accept a molecule of neurotransmitters - in other words, to transmit "extra" joy to a neuron in the brain. The more we overexpose it, the more receptor tendrils grow.

Over time, neurotransmitters, which have their own life span, cease to act. But the antennae remain! And when they are many, and neurotransmitters as much as usual, unoccupied tendrils begin to vibrate, "showing" the brain that they are empty. They "show" it with mental anxiety.

A person begins to feel discomfort and tries to remove it with a new portion of the "drug" (alcohol, shopping, salty food, etc.). He again produces a lot of neurotransmitters, antennae cease to bother him. And then there is a belief that alcohol (shopping, food, etc.) - his friend, who helps to cope with irritation. This is the moment when psychological dependence begins to form.

What are the dependencies:

Codependency is a pathological condition, characterized by deep preoccupation and strong emotional, social and even physical dependence on another person.

Alcohol dependence: reasons, symptoms and treatment
A lot of people drink alcohol, when the situation demands, for instance on high days and holidays or on the meeting of old friends. Usually the man is in direct control of himself, and even if he takes a glass too much, he will be all right again and won’t drink much again.

Drug dependence: forming, symptoms and treatment
Drug dependence is an insuperable craving for use of various psychoactive substances and adaptation of the body to them - thus, that without these substances it comes to metabolic imbalance of the body. Narcomania deals equally with psychical and physical spheres of a human.

Nicotine dependence: reasons, symptoms and treatment
Nicotine dependence manifests itself by physical dependence on the main substance of tobacco products – nicotine and by psychological dependence on smoking. The habit of smoking is not just a bad habit although, but a real disease, which is unfortunately very widespread.

Dependence on sugar. Sweet Killer
Sugar can lead to addiction. Scientists came to this conclusion as a result of numerous experiments. Scientists explain it this way. Firstly, our brain gets used to serotonin and dopamine – substances that are produced in the body under the influence of sugar. They are also called pleasure hormones. After the sweets really enhanced the mood. Through this I want.

Computer dependency and addiction to computer games
Computer dependency and addiction to computer games belong here. The man, who suffers from this sort of pathological addiction, spends a lot of time at his PC surfing the net or playing computer games.

Gambling addiction: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Gambling addiction or ludomania (“ludus” – a game, L.) – is a pathological addiction to gambling, belonging to mental disorder. According to International System of Disease Coding, ludomania has the code F63.0.

Addiction to the web or Internet addiction
The Internet became the integral part of many people’s lives. And all that thanks to accessibility and lots of advantages it provides, such as easy-to-get information of any kind, communication, shopping – and all that – without leaving your home. But there is another side of such conveniences and comprehensive facilities. The problem concerns Internet addiction, which is considered a psychical and behavioral disorder, hough it is not officially recognized as dependence yet.

Food addiction: forms, symptoms and treatment
For a human food is not only a means for satisfying hunger and maintaining the power, but also the pleasure and a communication tool. Collective eating at home or in a restaurant had a good reason – it draws people together and creates the warm and comfort atmosphere of communication. But for some people food becomes a real narcotic, the source of bright emotions and joy, so that they feel great inconvenience without it and suffer from fixed ideas about favorite dishes.

Narcissism – attraction to personal appearance. Signs, treatment, reasons of narcissism
Among various psychological dependences narcissism, or attraction to personal appearance, holds a specific place. Self-admiration, inflated self-concept and believe in perfect appearance of self are not just mental disability, but also a personal characteristic, which is extremely hard to get rid of. Of course, the desire to look nice and find an ideal image of self with the help of suitable hairstyle and the clothes – is not narcissism, but normal behavior.

Shopaholism or shopping addiction. Reasons, symptoms and treatment
Shopaholism – is one of the problems of the modern society, spread in the last ten years. Many people enjoy shopping, but when shopping becomes a fixed idea, overshadowing the other interests, we can talk about psychical dependence. Shopaholism manifests itself by irresistible craving for purchasing more and more goods and as often as possible. Impossibility to buy makes the person feel discomfort and apathy.

Workaholics. Workaholism. Symptoms, treatment and reasons of work addiction
A totally devoted to his work individual is usually very respected by people around; he looks like a very busy and successful person. But there is a border between loving job and being addicted to it. The last one leads to workaholism - the entire absorption by working activity, which excludes other interests.

From workaholism to professional burnout syndrome
In persons "helping" professions (doctors, teachers, social workers, psychotherapists, etc.) workaholism can lead to the formation of burnout syndrome professional. This syndrome includes feelings of fatigue and devastation, lethargy, depression and lack of enthusiasm.

Pathological lying as addiction
A pathological liar doesn’t understand that telling untruth is not good. There are people, who constantly tell lies, and they need to behave this way. But we shouldn’t confuse pathological lying or pseudologia (from Greek pseudos – lie, and logos – word, science) with lying for the sake of profit, flattery or other mercenary motives.

Hypochondria. Symptoms, treatment and reasons
Hypochondria is a psychosomatic disorder, characterized by obtrusive attention to own health and revealing various imaginary symptoms of different diseases. The person, who suffers from hypochondriacal neurosis, always complains of not feeling quite well, worries about his health without objective reasons.

Love addiction: when does love become a disease?
What can be more beautiful than love? This feeling enables you to experience a range of strong and bright emotions and brings you elation. However, sometimes true love is mistaken for love addiction, and these states are drastically opposite though they seem similar at first sight.

What is emotional dependence
Emotional dependence is a phenomenon in which a person feels dependent on another person-a spouse, relative or client. Emotional dependence should not be confused with dependence in the good sense of the word, that is, a sense of community and unity. This is a painful and difficult pattern of behavior that causes a person to suffer. Its roots lie in childhood, in the relationship with her mother

Sexual addiction: how it arises, manifests itself.
According to the world health organization (who), sexual activity improves sexual health and overall well-being. In sexual, as in other spheres of life, there are many different problems. In the United States in the late 1970s, alcoholics anonymous raised the issue of direct sexual addiction.

TV addiction: how to become free from the idiot box
Somebody will say, this addiction is a usual thing, nothing special at all. We all have got a bunch of dependences: on computers, cell phones, cars and other conveniences of our civilization. But they are not drugs. The thing is that TV addiction (like any other addiction) makes a person its slave, unnoticeably causing lots of problems with his health - both physical and mental.

Addiction to mobile phones: when a gadget becomes extension of your hand
Wide spread of cellular phones and their availability resulted in more and more dependency on mobile gadgets among people. Walking through the street you can't help but meet people with mobile phones in their hands, but of course not all of them are cellphone addicts.

Perfectionism. When desire for perfection comes to addiction
Tendency to do things in a good and right way, be successful at work, look perfect and be the best in everything is accepted by the society as a good personal characteristic. But sometimes such positive desire turns into fixed idea and leads to perfectionism. This beautiful and accurate definition is of English origin and comes from the word “perfection”, which explains the meaning of this term quite clear.

Kleptomania - stealing against one's will is also dependence
Kleptomania is not a commonplace theft and lack of discipline, but a serious mental disorder, characterized by strong amotivational urge to steal. The person obsessed by this addiction, commits a theft not because of financial gain or benefits, but because he just enjoys the process and accomplished fact of stealing.

Greediness, compulsive hoarding, pathological collecting: unbounded love to things and their hoarding
Greediness or acquisitiveness – is a pathological urge to purchasing different things and attachment to these things. A greedy man is very dependent on material goods and even objects, he doesn’t need very much.

Belief as dependence. Religious fanaticism – threat to public and personal safety
In the broad sense of the word fanaticism is the extreme devotion or worship to something or somebody, as well as emphatic rejection of other beliefs and values. In religious concept fanaticism appears as absolute infatuation for religious activity with forming the cult of it, worship and unconscious coming after the group of associates.

Blue disease - dependence from tattoos
Blue disease - a common "phenomenon" known as among the tattoo artists and their media. Its owner are those people who make a drawing begin to experience a strong desire to have a second. As a result, they return to the salon again and again.

Egoism, who are egoists and how to get rid of egoism
Selfishness is perceived by different individuals in very different ways. What is considered normal for one person, another person may perceive it as excessive egoism. Often naming egoist is used simply as a negative label, showing a negative attitude to a person without serious reasons

Energy vampirism, who are the vampires, the protection of energotamir
Energy vampire is a person, forcibly taking your energy, contrary to all laws of mutual energy exchange. Energy vampirism is a consequence of the violation of bioenergy exchange between man and the Universe

Why gnaw nails and how to get rid of this bad habit
Agree that it is quite unpleasant to see a person, especially if he is your interlocutor, who has a persistent habit of biting his nails, or onychophagia. This is not only aesthetic, but, according to doctors, quite dangerous

Copyright © BROSAEM.INFO - How to give up smoking, how to stop drinking, how to quit drugs

The information presented on this site is educational in nature and is not intended to
self-diagnosis and self-medication. Selection and appointment of drugs and treatments, as well as control
their application can be performed only by the attending physician. Be sure to consult with a physician.